Livestock Research for Rural Development 26 (6) 2014 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Ensiled taro foliage replacing rice bran in diets of gilts during pregnancy and lactation

Chhay Ty, Khieu Borin and T R Preston*

Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development.
Pras Teat village, Rolous commune, Kandal Stung district, Kandal province. PO Box 2423 Phnom Penh 3, Cambodia
chhayty@celagrid.org
* Center for Research and Technology Transfer, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Abstract

Ten crossbred gilts (Large White*local breed), with an average body weight of 1224.62 kg were mated by AI with semen from a Pietrain boar and followed for one complete reproductive cycle, during which they received diets of rice bran replaced by ensiled Taro (Colocacia ensiformis) foliage at levels (DM basis) of  0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% .  The experimental diets were offered three weeks after mating. Feeding was 2% of live weight (DM basis) during pregnancy and ad libitum during lactation.

There were  curvilinear responses in intake of DM and crude protein during gestation and lactation with the maximum values recorded with 30% taro foliage silage in the diet DM. Weight gain of the gilts during pregnancy increased as taro foraage silage was raised to the 30% level with no further increase up to 60% taro silage.  Feed conversion ratio showed a positive linear  response to level of taro foliage silage.  Less live weight was lost during lactation as rice bran was replaced by with ensiled taro foliage, with optimum values at 45 and 60%  levels of ensiled taro foliage in the diet. The number of piglets born was lowest on the 100% rice bran diet and highest with 60% replacement by Taro silage. The total litter weight at birth did not difffer among treatments as weights of the piglets reflected the size of the litter. Litter weights at weaning did not differ among treatments. Overall feed conversion (feed consumed during gestation and lactation per kg piglet weaned) appeared to improve as the proportion of taro silage in the diet was inceased.

Diets composed of approximately equal parts (DM basis) of ensiled taro foliage and rice bran supported satisfactory reproduction and lactation in crossbred gilts.

Key words: foliage silage, rice bran


Introduction

Pig production for small producers is usually a secondary source of family income, and used for festive events, paying a debt or as a savings bank. It is concentrated in rice growing areas because it is dependent on by-products from rice such as rice bran and broken rice. The constraint to use of these energy-rich byproducts is the need for protein supplements, which in conventional form (soybean meal and fish meal) are difficult to acquire in rural areas as well as being expensive. For this reason emphasis has been put on the use of protein-rich foliages which can be grown by the farmer ( http://www.mekarn.org/proprf/content.htm). Taro (Colocasia esculenta L Shott) is found growing in the wild state in mountain areas, in forests and in ponds and other water surfaces (Pham Sy Tiep et al 2006; Ngo Huu Toan and Preston 2007; Pheng Buntha et al 2008). The survey in Cambodia by Pheng Buntha et al (2008) indicated that farmers grew taro mainly for tuber production but they occasionally fed the leaves and petioles to their pigs. Cooking of the taro foliage was considered to be necessary in view of the irritation (itching) on the skin and in the mouth of the pigs caused by contact with the fresh leaves.


Objective

The objective in the study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of ensiled taro foliage replacing diet rice bran on performance of gilts during pregnancy and lactation .


Materials and methods

Location

The experiment was carried out in the Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development (CelAgrid), located in Phras Teat village, Sangkat Rolous, Khan Dankor, about 25km from Phnom Penh City, Cambodia.

Experimental animal, treatments and design

Ten crossbred (Large white x Local breed) gilts , with an average live body weight of 1224.62 kg were housed in individual pens with concrete floor. The experiment was done according to a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 2 replications of each treatment. The gilts were were mated by AI with semen from the Pietrain boar and followed for one complete reproductive cycle. The experimental diets were offered three weeks (21 days) after mating.  

The treatments (n DM basis) were:

 

Table 1: Planned composition of the diets, % DM basis (based on prior analysis of the ingredients)

Level of taro foliage silage

Ingredients

0

15

30

45

60

Taro foliage silage

0

15

30

45

60

Rice bran

98.5

83.5

68.5

53.5

38.5

Limestone

1

1

1

1

1

Salt

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Composition

Dry matter, %

86.7

75.7

64.7

53.7

42.7

Crude protein, % in DM

10.2

11.3

12.4

13.5

14.7

Feeds, feeding and management

Taro foliage was harvested from natural ponds in the area. It was chopped (2-3cm) by hand and dried for one to two days to reducedthe moiture and then ensiled without additives. It was stored for one month before being fed. Rice bran was purchased from the local rice mill sconidered to be of low quality); calcium carbonate and salt were purchased from an animal feed shop in Phnom Penh. Diets were offered  at 2% of live weight (DM basis) during pregnancy and ad libitum during lactation. The rice bran and minerals were mixed together and fed first prior to feeding taro foliage silage.

Data collection

The gilts were weighed at intervals of 2 weeks during pregnancy and farrowing until the end of lactation which was for 42 days). The piglets were weighed at birth and then every week until weaning at 42 days. Feed intake was recorded during the gestation and lactation periods. Litter size at birth, birth weight, weaning weight, mortality (at birth and weaning), and live weight changes of the gilts during lactation were calculated.

Feed analysis

Taro foliage silage, rice bran, limestone and salt were analyzed for DM by oven drying at 60C for 48h. Nitrogen (N) was determined according to AOAC (1990).

Statistical analysis

Analysis of variance was performed using the general linear models of Minitab software (Minitab release 16.1.1, 2010). Sources of variation were treatments and error. When the F-test was significant at P<0.05, pair wise comparisons were performed using Turkey’s procedure (Minitab Statistical Software). The model used was:

Yij = μ + Ti + eij

Where, Yij = Dependent variables

μ = overall mean

Ti = treatment effect (i=1-2)

eij = random error

Linear and curvilinear regressions were calculated using Microsoft Office-Excel software.


Results and discussion

Chemical composition of ingredients

The  crude protein in taro foliage silage was slightly higher than we have reported previously (eg: 17%; Chhay Ty et al 2014) and confirms its value as a protein-rice supplement to be fed along with rice bran.

Table 2: Chemical composition of ingredients (as fed for DM and on DM basis for crude protein)

Ingredient,

% Dry matter

% Crude protein

Taro foliage silage

11.6

19.3

Rice bran

88.6

10.5

Calcium carbonate

95.4

-

Salt

92.8

-

Feed intake

There were  curviline responses in intake of DM and crude protein during gestation and lactation with the maximum values recorded with 30% taro foliage silage in the diet DM (Tables 3 and 4; Figures 1 and 2). 

Table 3 : Mean value sof feed intake in gestation of gilts fed rice bran replaced by ensiled taro foliage

Level of taro foliage silage, % in diet DM

Ingredients, g/day

0

15

30

45

60

SEM

Prob

Taro foliage silage

0

408

826

1089

1265

18.6

<0.001

Rice bran

2723a

2335b

2196c

1474d

1063e

18.6

<0.001

Shell

28a

28a

32b

28a

28a

0.25

<0.001

Salt

14a

14a

16b

14a

14a

0.13

<0.001

Total intake, g/day

2765a

2785a

3070b

2605c

2370d

31.1

<0.001

Intake, g/kg live weight

20.0a

19.9a

19.2b

18.9b

16.9c

0.11

<0.001

Crude protein intake, g/d

285a

323.9b

390.0c

364.9d

355.8d

4.77

<0.001

As % in the diet

Taro foliage silage

0

14.6

26.5

41.2

51.7

0.38

<0.001

Crude protein

10.3a

11.6b

12.7c

13.9d

14.8e

0.04

<0.001

abcde Means within main effects within rows with different common letter are different at P<0.05


Table 4: Mean value of feed intake during lactation of gilts fed rice bran replaced by ensiled taro foliage

 

Level of taro foliage silage

Ingredients, g/day

0

15

30

45

60

SEM

Prob

Taro foliage silage

0

412

1172

1395

1531

33.9

<0.001

Rice bran

3476a

3924b

3574a

2170c

1084d

56.4

<0.001

Shell

43a

45ab

46b

36c

27d

0.66

<0.001

Salt

21a

22a

24b

18c

13d

0.33

<0.001

Total intake, g/day

3540a

4403b

4816c

3619a

2655d

72.5

<0.001

Intake, g/kg live weight

25.8a

31.8b

28.2c

24.9a

20.0d

0.62

<0.001

Crude protein intake, g/d

358a

482b

591c

489b

402d

9.29

<0.001

As % in the diet DM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Taro foliage silage

0

9.08

23.8

38.1

57.2

0.51

<0.001

Crude protein

10.1a

10.9b

12.2c

13.5d

15.1e

0.03

<0.001

abcde Means within main effects within rows with different common letter are different at P<0.05


Figure 1: Effect of replacing rice bran with ensiled taro
foliage on DM intake during pregnancy
Figure 2: Effect of replacing rice bran with ensiled taro
foliage on CP intake during pregnancy

Figure 3: Effect of replacing rice bran with ensiled taro
foliage on DM intake during lactation
Figure 4: Effect of replacing rice bran with ensiled taro
foliage on CP intake during lactation
Live weight changes in gestation

The live weight gain of the gilts during pregnancy showed a curvilinear response to level of taro silage with the optimum at 30% replacement of the rice bran by taro foliage silage and no further change with up to 60% replacememt (Table 5; Figures 5 and 7). Feed conversion ratio showed a positive linear  response to level of taro foliage silage (Figure 6).

Table 5: Mean value of live weight change in gestation sow fed replacing of rice bran by different levels of ensiled taro foliage

 

Level of taro foliage silage in diet DM, %

 

0

15

30

45

60

SEM

Prob

Body weight, kg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At mating

126

122

129

119

115

12.9

0.930

At farrowing

152

148

162

151

147

12.1

0.912

Change in gestation

26.0

26.5

33.0

32.0

33.0

4.65

0.691

Gestation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daily weigh gain, g

266

326

395

360

379

33.2

0.183

DM feed conversion

10.4

8.70

7.93

7.28

6.21

1.09

0.226

Length of pregnancy, days

113

112

114

114

113

0.22

0.006


Figure 5: Effect of replacing rice bran with ensiled taro foliage
on weight cahnges during lactation
Figure 6: Effect of replacing rice bran with ensiled taro foliage
on DM feed conversion during lactation

Figure 7: Effect on live weight change of the gilts during gestation
with replacement of rice bran by ensiled taro foliage
Live weight change during lactation

Loss of live weight during lactation was reduced by replacement of rice bran with ensiled taro foliage, with optimum values at 45 and 60%  levels of ensiled taro foliage in the diet (Table 6; Figure 8).In part this benficial; effect of the taaro silage can be related to the increase in dietry protein supply (at the 45% substitution level the diet crude protein concentration had increased to 13% in DM compared with 10% in the diet of rice bran alone (Table 3)).  The studies of O'Grady et al (1985) and Noblet et al (1990) support the importance of dietary protein level during lactation. Revel et al (1998) reported that sows offered a high protein diet during lactation (19.0% CP and 15.6 MJ DE/kg) lost only 4.3 kg during the four weeks of lactation (0.15 kg live weight loss/day), while those offered a low protein diet (7.9% CP and 15.5 MJ DE/kg as fed) lost on average 30.8 kg during lactation (1.1 kg/day).

Table 6: Mean values of live weight change in lactation of gilts fed  rice bran replaced by different levels of ensiled taro foliage

 

Level of taro foliage silage, % in DM

 

0

15

30

45

60

SEM

Prob

Live weight, kg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After farrowing

152

148

162

151

147

12.1

0.912

2 weeks

143

141

157

146

140

11.5

0.835

4 weeks

134

130

151

139

134

11.0

0.724

6 weeks (at weaning)

124

125

145

134

129

11.4

0.721

Weight loss during lactation

28.0a

23.5ab

17.5b

17.0b

18.5b

1.46

0.012

Weight loss, g/day

666a

560ab

417b

405b

441b

0.03

0.012

ab Means within rows without common letter are different at P<0.05


Figure 8: Live weight loss of sow during lactation period fed rice bran
replaced by different levels of ensiled taro foliage
Piglet performance

The number of piglets born was lowest on the 100% rice bran diet and highest with 60% replacement by Taro silage (Table 7; Figure 9). The total litter weight at birth did not difffer among treatments as weights of the piglets reflected the size of the litter. Litter weights at weaning did not differ among treatments (Figure 10) implying that milk production was not affected by the diet composition. This implication is supported by the overall feed conversion (feed consumed during gestation and lactation per kg piglet weaned) which did not differ among  dietary treatments (Figure 11).  The feed conversion for the diets with 45 or 60% ensiled tara foliage was some 50% poorer than that reported by Duyet and Preston (2013) for Mong Cai sows fed diets in which rice bran was replaced gradually by an ensiled mixture of banana pseudo-stem and taro foliage (DM conversion per piglet weaned was from 4 to 5 kg feed DM per kg piglet weaned). The use of gilts in the present experiment compared with 3rd parity sows used by Duyet and Preston (2013) is one explanation for this difference; the other is the known  high fertility of the Mong Cai breed and its capacity to use forage-based diets (Duyet 2010; Duyet et al 2010; Duyet and Preston 2013).

Table 7: Mean values for piglet performance from gilts fed rice bran replaced by different levels of ensiled taro foliage

 

Level of taro foliage silage, % in diet DM

 

0

15

30

45

60

SEM

Prob

At birth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total litter size*

4.50a

7.00b

7.50b

6.50b

8.50c

0.44

0.011

Total litter weight, kg

9.05

9.45

10.1

11.7

11.6

0.81

0.197

Mean piglet live weight, kg

2.00b

1.35a

1.35a

1.80b

1.40a

0.12

0.036

At weaning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total litter size

4.50a

6.50b

7.00b

6.50b

7.50b

0.44

0.032

Total litter weight

53.6

56.1

50.4

64.6

51.9

12.2

0.923

Mean piglet live weight, kg

11.8

8.45

7.20

9.95

6.95

1.48

0.260

Feed DM,# kg/kg weaned piglet 9.14 10.4 11.2 6.96 7.31 2.22 0.620

Survival rate

100

92.9

93.8

100

88.2

4.25

0.351

* All piglets were alive at birth
#Consumed by the gilt in pregnancy + lactation, kg

Figure 9: Piglets born alive from gilts fed rice bran replaced
by different levels of ensiled taro foliage
Figure 10: Litter weight at weaning from gilts fed rice bran
replaced by different levels of ensiled taro foliage


Figure 11: Feed consumed by the gilt (pregnancy and lactation) per kg of piglet weaned


Conclusions


Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express their gratitude to:  the MEKARN project financed by SIDA; the Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development (CelAgrid), for providing resources for conducting this experiment; and the students of Royal University of Agriculture for assistance in implementing this experiment.


References

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Received 21 May 2013; Accepted 21 April 2014; Published 1 June 2014

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