Livestock Research for Rural Development

Volume 22, Number 5, 2010

LRRD Newsletter

Welcome to Volume 22, Number 5 of Livestock Research for Rural Development


The Vision and Mission of LRRD
Papers received and published
Responsibilities of authors
New developments
  • Indexing LRRD
  • Search engine for LRRD
Editorial committee
Editorial Procedures
Proof reading of papers
References to LRRD on the Web
On Line Formats for LRRD
  • The HTML Format
E-mail addresses of the Publishers and Editors of LRRD
The University of Tropical Agriculture Foundation (UTA)
The MEKONG Basin Animal Research Network (MEKARN)
Recycling livestock and human excreta
Recent FAO Publications
  • Tropical Feeds
  • Recent relevant books from FAO Animal Production and Health Series
  • Better Farming Series
Matching Livestock Production Systems in the Tropics and Sub-tropics with Available Resources

The Vision and Mission of LRRD

The Editorial committee of LRRD have long recognized the unsustainable basis of "industrial" live stock production systems, the development of which was facilitated, and is still sustained, by readily available fossil fuels (which until 2008 were also of very low price). As has been stated by many commentators and analysts; see recent reviews by:


and Preston

This situation must change as resources are finite and climate change is inevitable. Systems of live stock production must also change to meet the challenges of food and energy production in a warming, resource-depleting world. The mission of LRRD is to promote research which will respond to these challenges by developing farming systems which are:  "localized, multi-crop, energy and water efficient, with a negative carbon footprint, are socially just and self-sustaining".

The LRRD Vision

The future requirements of society for food and energy can best be met from integrated small to  medium family farm systems in which:

·         all resources are produced locally, 

·          the direct and indirect use of solar energy is maximized,

·         all wastes are recycled;

·         the carbon footprint is negative; 

·         there are overall environmental and social benefits.

The LRRD mission

To promote local research on the:

(i)                 use of local resources for live stock production in ways that are non-competitive with human needs;

(ii)               development of systems for producing renewable energy by:  

a.       biodigestion of animal and human organic wastes;

b.      gasification of dry fibrous residues from crops grown primarily as food/feed for humans and live stock;

c.       increasing use of draft animal power

(iii)             promotion of indigenous live stock breeds that have high reproductive rates and adaptation to use of local feed resources and local climatic conditions;

(iv)             regeneration of soil fertility through promotion of tree crops and recycling of organic matter

(v)               development of  emerging markets for ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration and nutrient sequestration.

(vi)             promotion of “farmer“  markets for food produced in environmentally  friendly and socially just, family-oriented small-scale farming systems

(vii)           Improving the efficiency of use of water

(viii)    Recycling of wastes

Papers received and published in 2009

The numbers of papers submitted annually to LRRD declined slightly to 505 in 2009 (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Papers submitted to LRRD in the period 2004-2009

The origins of the papers in 2009 (Figure 2) show that Nigeria is at the head of the list followed by India, then Ethiopia, Colombia, Algeria and Kenya. Papers were submitted from 41 countries in 2009, compared with 57 in 2008.

Figure 2: Papers submitted to LRRD during 2009 (n=504)

LRRD published 227 papers in 2009. The number of papers published since the launch of LRRD in 1989 up to the end of 2009 is now 1,701. During the last 4 years the annual increase in numbers of papers published has averaged close to 15% (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Papers published  in LRRD since it was launched in 1989


Table 1: Papers received, rejected and published during 2008 and 2009




Papers accepted

163 117

Papers rejected

156 (49%) 172 (60%)

Papers published

214 224

Reception to acceptance, days

66 68.1

Acceptance to publication, days

79 72

Reception to publication, days

145 140.1


The average time to process the papers published in 2009 was 140 days, divided between the time taken in the review process (68 days) and in final editing and formatting in HTML (72 days). Reviewing time and the time for final editing and formatting were similar to what was recorded in 2008.  The rate of rejection has increased from 49% in 2008 to 60% in 2009. These numbers were calculated from the numbers of papers rejected as a proportion of the total of papers accepted and rejected in each year. Numbers rejected and published do not add up to the number received as some papers published in 2009 were received in 2008,  and many papers received in 2009 are still in the review and editing process.

The increase in the proportion of papers not accepted in 2009 compared with 2008, reflects the increasing emphasis being put by the editorial committee on the issues of relevance to the objectives of  LRRD. These objectives, and the underlying rationales, are now clearly delineated in the "Vision" and "Mission" of LRRD,  as stated earlier in this Newsletter.  The mission of LRRD is to promote research which will respond to these challenges by developing farming systems which are:  "localized, multi-crop, energy and water efficient, with a negative carbon footprint, socially just and self-sustaining".

Responsibilities of authors

The rapid growth in papers received and published during the last 5 years has put considerable pressure on the editorial team which, as we have often pointed out, is composed of professional scientists (most of them self-employed), who give their time freely to promote the mission of LRRD.  The journal does not receive financial support from any quarter and does not employ secretaries or technical assistants. All activities are done online by electronic mail or through the Web pages of LRRD ( and utafoundation ( In this medium, constantly under pressure from Spam and viruses, papers and communications to and from authors may be mislaid or lost permanently. The editorial team take all possible precautions to avoid disruption of the editorial process, but mistakes are inevitable.

Authors are therefore requested to:

New developments:

LRRD now has its own domain "". It will continue to be published by CIPAV, but the independent web site is in keeping with its role as an international medium for research in sustainable live stock-based agriculture. The change will also facilitate the gathering of statistics on access to the site.

Editorial Committee

The list of Editors and Associate-editors is as follows:

The Scientific Committee, which acts in an advisory capacity, is:

Editorial procedures

Receipt of papers is usually confirmed the day they arrive and almost always they are sent to the associate-editors (or in some case direct to reviewers) the same day. We expect reviewers to send recommendations to the associate-editors (or Chief Editor), as to acceptance of papers for publication in LRRD, and comments, within two weeks of receiving the paper. 

If authors do not receive confirmation of receipt of their papers within two weeks of submitting them, they should remind the chief editor on:

It will also decrease our work load and speed up publication, if authors follow carefully the style and format of LRRD by consulting published papers in earlier issues. Attention is drawn to the style of references and tables which is where most mistakes are made.

Please read the section on "Norms for preparation of papers for LRRD" for details. Failure to observe the LRRD norms for editing papers will inevitably lead to delays in publication, because of the additional work load this causes for the Editors.

Proof reading of papers:

A paper written for LRRD in "html" has a number of supporting files including the "style" of headings and the images of graphs and photos. This creates some difficulties for editors and authors for the final "proof-reading" of the papers when these are sent by E-mail,  as the editors have to ensure that the supporting files are attached along with the paper; and the author, when she / he receives the paper,  has to put all the files in the same folder to be sure that when the paper is opened it will appear complete on the screen.  To avoid these inconveniences, each paper as it is edited is being made available as a provisional "url" which is communicated to authors when the final version of their paper is ready in html format. Authors can then check the paper for possible errors or last minute corrections and inform the editors accordingly.

References to LRRD on the Web

 The correct citation for LRRD is now shown in the link "Citation of this paper" at the top of the first page of each article. 

On Line Formats for Livestock Research for Rural Development

HTML ('HyperText Markup Language')

HTML is the native language for publishing documents on the World Wide Web and is understood by all Web browsing software. The journal, as the principal means of publication of developing world sustainable agriculture, needs to be easily available to the widest possible audience of interested people. Using HTML as the on online publishing format has three principal advantages. The first is that everybody who finds the journal can read it with their Internet browser (Microsoft Internet Explorer and Firefox, are amongst the most common). Secondly, the Internet search engines such as Google and Yahoo will index the pages. Thirdly, articles can be posted on the Web  as soon as they are formatted in HTML, thus increasing tremendously the speed of communication of information.

All previous issues of the journal have now been converted to HTML format (thanks to CIPAV staff in Colombia), thus there is available on the Internet through the CIPAV web pages a library of over 20 years of research in the field of developing world sustainable agriculture.

The HTML version of LRRD is available on the Web at:

E-mail addresses of the Publishers and Editors of LRRD

The publisher (CIPAV) in Colombia

The Editors in Colombia in France


A CD-ROM with all issues of the journal up to the most recent issue can be obtained on request from the Editor in Colombia. The price is USD 10.00 per copy, excluding air-mail postage.

The University of Tropical Agriculture Foundation (UTA)

UTA has moved it's international base of activities from Cambodia to Colombia, to a recently purchased farm in the Department of Santander, which is being developed as an "ecofarm" for research, demonstration and learning. The UTA Home page is being updated to reflect these changes.

The MEKONG Basin Animal Research Network (MEKARN)

Details of this network, financed by SidaSAREC,  and involving research and training institutions in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, can be found on the Web site:

Copies of the MSc theses of the most recent group of graduates (2007) are published as a "Supplement" in LRRD (

Recycling livestock and human excreta

Much interest has been generated in the low-cost plastic biodigesters and the duckweed ponds which are an integral feature of ecological farming.  A manual giving practical details of these technologies has been prepared for FAO and is available at:

In addition to this manual which uses "still" pictures, more detailed guides on the Biodigesters and the Duckweed ponds are available on CD-ROMs in combined Video and Text format:

1. Productive use of livestock wastes: a manual for installation of low-cost plastic biodigesters

2. Productive use of livestock wastes: a manual for the use of  biodigester effluent and ponds for duckweed production

Prices are USD10.00 for each CD-ROM disk plus freight. Details can be had from Lylian Rodriguez at:

FAO Publications

This is an electronic edition of the book `Tropical Feeds', originally written by Dr Bo Göhl, and published by FAO in 1971. The database (program prepared by Dr A W Speedy and Nick Waltham) is available on CD-ROM from: The Senior Officer (Feed Resources), Animal Production and Health Division, FAO, Via della terme di Caracalla, 00100-Rome, Italy.

The most recent version (version 8) is available on:

No 126, Tropical animal feeding: A manual for research workers (T R Preston) 1995, pp 305 (English)

No 132, Feeding pigs in the tropics (Rena Perez) 1997, pp 185 (English):

No 134, Tratamiento y utilización de residuos de origen animal, pesquero y alimenticio en la alimentación animal (Editors: Vilda Figueroa y Manuel Sánchez) 1997, pp 255 (Castellano) [Not yet available on Internet]

No 135, Roughage utilization in warm climates (Michel Chenost and Chedly Kayouli) 1997, pp 226 (English et Français)  
English version:
Version française :

No 139, Tree foliage in ruminant nutrition (Ronald A Leng) 1997, pp 100 (English)

Duckweed; a tiny aquatic plant with enormous potential for agriculture and environment (Ronald A Leng) 1999, pp 108 (English)

No 42, Using fodder from trees and shrubs to feed livestock in the tropics (O B Smith), pp 52 (English, Français, Castellano)

No 43, Feeding animals on straw (F Dolberg), pp30 (English)

No 45, Multinutrient block handbook (L O Garcia and J I Restrepo), pp 28 (English)

No 46, Use of cassava and sweet potatoes in animal feeding (V Ravindran), pp 47(English)

Matching Livestock Production Systems in the Tropics and Sub-tropics with Available Resources

This book by T R Preston and R A Leng, originally published in hard cover by Penambul Books, Armidale, NSW in 1987, has now been converted to HTM language and is freely available at:

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