Livestock Research for Rural Development 21 (3) 2009 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD News

Citation of this paper

Growth performance, immune response and carcass traits of broiler chicks fed on graded levels of palm kernel cake without or with enzyme supplementation

M A Soltan 

 

Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,  Alexandria University, Egypt
mosaadsoltan@feedco.com.sa   or  mosaadsoltan2000@yahoo.com

Abstract 

Five hundred one-day-old Hubbard broiler chicks were used to investigate the efficacies of replacing soybean bean meal by palm kernel cake (PKC) in broiler chick's diets on an ideal protein basis without or with enzyme supplementation were evaluated. Five experimental diets were formulated containing 0.0%, 5%, 10% 15% and 20% PKC and fed without or with enzyme supplementation to broiler chicks for 6 weeks.

 

PKC inclusion at 5% and 10% of broiler chick diets non significantly (P>0.05) reduced body weight (BW) and daily weight gain (DBG) when compared with control while the higher dietary inclusion levels of PKC (15% and 20%) reduced (P<0.05) BW and DBG. Moreover PKC increase daily feed intake and deteriorate FCR, PER and EEU when compared with control. However, PKC improve HI antibody titer to Newcastle disease vaccine of broiler chickens and increased phagocytic activity and index when compared with control. In regards to carcass traits, PKC inclusion had no effect (P>0.05) on dressing percent and liver relative weight while increase (P<0.05) gizzard relative weight and improved relative weight of immune organs (spleen, bursa and thymus gland) when compared with control. Enzyme supplementation improved BW, DBG, FCR, PER, EEU, phagocytic activity and index, dressing% and immune organs relative weights when compared with chick group fed on the same diets without enzyme supplementation and the efficacy of enzyme was more pronounced with increasing PKC inclusion levels in broiler diets.

 

The present results showed that PKC can be included in broiler chick diet at 10% without adverse affect on growth performance parameters while 20% of PKC can be used with enzyme supplementation and the results strongly recommended PKC usage for improvement of bird's health and immune response.     

Key words: Broiler, palm kernel cake, enzyme supplementation, growth performance, immune response


Introduction

Palm kernel cake is the major by-product in palm kernel extraction. The by-product from the mechanical expeller procedure is referred to as palm kernel cake (PKC), whilst the by-product from the solvent extraction technique is called palm kernel meal (PKM) (Choct 2001). The former may contain four times as much residual oil as the latter (Chin 2002). Incorporation of PKC in livestock and poultry diets is limited by its high fiber level, gritty nature, unpalatability, relatively low availability levels of amino acids and high copper content (Onwudike 1986, Hair-Bejo and Alimon 1995). However, early reports indicated that PKC can be fed to starter and finisher broiler chicks at the 28% and 35% inclusion levels without a deleterious effect on production (Onwudike 1986) also  Okeudo et al (2005, 2006) showed that broilers fed a 30% PKC diet during the finisher phase were similar in growth rate to counterparts fed a 0% PKC diet. Panigrahi and Powell (1991) had shown that with methionine and lysine supplementation, broilers can be fed diets containing 40% PKC. Interestingly, recent findings have also demonstrated that inclusion of PKC in poultry diets improves the health and immunity of the birds (Allen et al 1997, Sundu et al 2006).

 

-mannan and non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) are the main component of PKC (Sundu et al 2006), such components are not easily digested by poultry. The anti-nutritional effect of these NSP is manifested by poor growth accomplished by depressed nutrient utilization (Annison and Choct 1991). These adverse effects can be overcome by dietary supplementation of exogenous enzymes (Bedford 1995). Enzyme have been approved for use in poultry diets because they are natural fermented products and, therefore, will not create a detrimental effect on the animal as well as on consumers. There are many enzymes available in the market. In practical poultry feeding, the choice of appropriate enzymes for a particular diet is important, while it is not definitely known which enzyme will be better for PKC but initially the choice depends on the NSP content.

 

The objectives of this study was designed to determine the growth performance, immune response and some carcass traits of broilers fed on different levels of PKC supplemented with exogenous enzymes.

 

Material and methods 

Birds, Accommodation and management

 

A total of 500 Hubbard, one-day-old broiler chicks were used in this study. The broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 10 treatment equal groups and each group was subdivided into two replicates. The chicks were housed in a clean well ventilated room, previously disinfected with formalin. The room was provided with electric heaters to adjust the environmental temperature according to the age of the birds. Feeds and water were supplied ad-libitum. Prophylactic measures against the most common infectious diseases were carried out. The chicks were vaccinated against Newcastle disease with different types of Newcastle disease vaccine as presented in table 1.


Table 1.  Vaccination program of broiler chicks during the experimental period.

Age, days

Vaccine

Route of vaccination

7

Hitchner1

Eye Drop

12

Gumboro2

""""

14

Lasota3

Eye Drop

20

Gumboro

""""

26

Lasota

""""

30

Gumboro

""""

1- B1 Hitchner (Intervet), 2- Izovac Gumboro Batch No. 7125, 3- ND vaccine Lasota (Intervet.)


Experimental design and feeding program

 

The broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 10 groups; received one out of the different experimental diets during the experimental period (6 weeks experiment). The treatment diets were formulated to meet the requirements of broiler chickens according to NRC (1994).  Four other diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous as the basal diet No. 1, in which 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of PKC were added and the quantity of PKC protein of each inclusion levels was replaced soybean protein of the control (No. 1) and the other ingredients adjusted. The five experimental diets were fed without or with enzyme supplementation (EniBioCell product "produced by Ameco-Bios Co. USA" contain Amylase 5500000 U/kg, Protease, 200000 U/kg, B.Gluconase 30000 U/kg, Lipase 150000 U/kg, Xylanase 500000 U/kg and Cellulase 15000 U/kg; and used at 0.5 kg/ton feed). The ingredient composition and chemical analysis according to AOAC (1990) of the experimental diets are presented in table 2.


Table 2.  Ingredient composition and chemical analysis of the basal diet.

 

Starter Diet

Grower Diet

Finisher Diet

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

Ingredients

Yellow Corn

61.1

57.6

54.1

50.6

47.1

66.0

62.2

58.5

54.7

51.0

68.1

64.4

60.6

56.9

53.1

PKC1

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

Soy meal (48%)

33.0

31.3

29.5

27.8

26.0

28.5

27.0

25.5

24.0

22.5

26.8

25.3

23.8

22.3

20.8

Fish meal (65%)

1.5

1.75

2.00

2.25

2.5

1.0

1.25

1.5

1.75

2.0

0.5

0.75

1.0

1.25

1.5

Vegetable Oil

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

0.75

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Limestone

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.4

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

Dicalcium phosphate

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

Salt (NaCl)

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Vitamin premix2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

mineral premix3

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

DL-methionine

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

L-Lysine

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Choline chloride

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Coccidiostate4

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Chemical analysis

Moisture%

10.7

10.9

11.0

10.4

10.6

10.8

10.6

11.0

10.6

10.9

11.0

10.7

10.7

10.9

11.1

Crude protein%

21.9

21.7

21.6

21.6

21.9

19.9

19.8

19.7

19.7

19.8

18.9

18.7

18.75

18.8

18.8

Ether extract%

3.09

3.29

3.24

3.24

4.02

3.33

3.59

3.85

4.11

4.34

3.68

3.89

4.12

4.38

4.62

Crude fiber%

2.52

3.02

4.02

4.23

4.8

2.33

3.01

4.10

4.32

4.74

2.43

3.31

4.11

4.34

4.65

ME Kcal/Kg5

2985

2953

2918

2883

2849

3047

3011

2975

2938

2901

3084

3047

3010

2973

2937

C/P ratio

136

136

134

133

132

153

152

151

149

147

163

163

161

158

156

DL-Methionie%5

0.50

0.49

0.49

0.49

0.50

0.47

0.46

0.46

0.46

0.46

0.44

0.43

0.43

0.43

0.43

L- Lysine%4

1.18

1.15

1.14

1.14

1.14

1.01

1.00

1.00

0.99

0.99

0.94

0.93

0.93

0.93

0.93

1- PKC = Palm kernel cake (contain, 8.5% moisture, 17.4% crude protein, 7.6% ether extract, 14.3% crude fiber, 0.4% lysine, 0.29 % methionine and 2420 Kcal ME/kg).
2-Vitamin premix produced by Centraly’s Co (France) and contain the following vitamins per Kg premix   (vitamin A, 12000000, IU; Vitamin D, 2000000 IU;  Vitamin E, 20000 mg; Vitamin K, 2000 mg; vitamin   B12, 10 mg; Biotin, 200 mg; Folacin, 1000 mg; Niacin, 30000 mg; pantothenic acid, 10000 mg; pyridoxine, 4000 mg; ribroflvin, 5000 mg; thiamin, 2000  mg and proper dose of antitoxidant).

3- Mineral premix produced by Centraly’s Co. (contain the following minerals per Kg, Cobalt, 100 mg;     Copper, 10000 mg; Iron, 50000 mg; Iodine, 500 mg;  manganese, 85000 mg; zinc, 65000 mg and selenium, 200 mg).

4- Coccidiostate (Salinomycin 12%, produced by Pfizer Co., USA and  used at 0.5 Kg per ton diet during starter and grower periods).

5- Metabolizable energy (ME), DL-Methionine and lysine content were calculated according the NRC (1994)
.


Measurements

 

Body weight development, body weight gain and feed intake of broiler chicks in different groups were biweekly recorded. Feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and efficiency of energy utilization (EEU) were calculated according to Lambert et al (1936), McDonald et al (1987) and North (1981) respectively.

 

Immune response measurements

 

Haemagglutination Inhibition test

 

Ten sets of blood samples were collected from the experimental birds of each group at 14, 24 and 34 days of age. Blood samples was collected without anticoagulant for separation of sera to detect the titer of antibodies against Newcastle disease vaccine using haemaglutination inhibition test (HI) as an indicative of the bird’s immune response in the different experimental groups. Micro technique of HI test was done according to Takatasy (1955). Geometric mean titer (GMT) was calculated according to Brugh (1978).

 

Phagocytic activity and index

 

Phagocytic activity was determined according to Kawahara et al (1991). Fifty micrograms of Candida albicans culture were added to 1 ml of citrated blood, collected at the end of experiment by slaughtering five birds from each group .Treated blood samples were put in shaker water bath at 23–250C for 3 – 5 hrs. Smears of blood were made and then stained with Geimsa stain. Phagocytosis was estimated by determining the proportion of macrophages which contain intracellular yeast cells in a random sample of 300 macrophages and expressed as percentage of phagocytic activity (PA). The number of phagocytized Candida cells was counted in the phagocytic cells to calculate the phagocytic index according to the following equations: Phagocytic activity = (Macrophages containing yeast/Total number of macrophages) X 100. While, Phagocytic index = (Number of cell phagocytized / Number of phagocytic cell) X 100.

 

Carcass characteristic

 

At the end of the experimental period, 5 chicks from each group were randomly selected and scarified to calculated the carcass and dressing percentages, also collect the spleen, the liver, gizzard, the thymus and the bursa and relative weight of each organ was calculated as follows: Relative weight = (organ weight/Live body weight) X 100.

 

Statistical analysis

 

The analysis of variance for the obtained data was performed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS 1996) to assess significant differences.

 

Results and discussion 

Body weight development and growth performance

 

The effect of PKC inclusion levels on body weight (BW) development of broiler chicks is presented in table 3.


Table 3.  Effect of palm kernel cake inclusion without or with enzyme supplementation on body weight development (g/bird) of broiler chicks.

Age (week)

Groups No.

PKC inclusion levels, %

Body weight, g/bird

Without enzyme supplementation

With enzyme supplementation

Week 0

1

0

42.51.1ax

41.90.7ax

2

5

41.80.8ax

42.20.9ax

3

10

43.11.3ax

41.51.0ax

4

15

42.61.0ax

42.31.0ax

5

20

42.70.9ax

41.80.8ax

Week 2

1

0

419.96.5ax

425.36.2ax

2

5

401.37.8ax

418.55.9ax

3

10

380.95.6ax

402.94.6abx

4

15

372.28.9ax

395.56.9abx

5

20

379.95.2ax

381.37.6bx

Week 4

1

0

119420.1ax

124218.7ax

2

5

113321.6ax

118022.4ax

3

10

105125.8ax

112126.5ax

4

15

1020.19.7ax

109019.7bx

5

20

101021.7ax

109923.7abx

Week 6

1

0

208152.1ax

213146.4ax

2

5

200043.9aby

210548.2ax

3

10

196644.0abcx

206348.6abx

4

15

186749.5cx

198750.9bx

5

20

189943.5cx

199751.1bx

Values are means standard error. Mean values with different letters at the same column (a - d letters) or row (x – y letters) and period differ significantly at (P≤0.05).


The analysis of variance of the data at the start of the experiment showed that there was no significant difference in BW between different experimental groups, while there were differences between the broiler fed different levels of PKC began in the end of second week and more appeared at the end of the experiment. Inclusion of PKC at 5 and 10% of broiler chickens diet without enzyme supplementation (groups 2 and 3 respectively) showed non significant (>0.05) reduction in their BW by about 3.9% and 5.6% when compared with control, while inclusion of PKC at 15 and 20% without enzyme supplementation (groups 4 and 5 respectively) significantly (P<0.05) reduced BW by about 10.3% and 8.7% respectively when compared with control. There were indications that BW was negatively related to the dietary inclusion levels of PKC (figure 1).    



 

Figure 1.  Relationship between PKC content Without or with enzyme supplementation and body weight development of broiler chicks


Reduction of BW with increasing PKC inclusion levels in broiler chicks diets may be attributed to the lower nutrient digestibility with PKC inclusion and the explanation supported by Sundu and Dingle (2003) had earlier reported that during processing PKC may also undergo Maillard reaction (the reaction of mannose with amino groups leading to the formation of a brown complex) due to heat applied in the process before and during oil extraction and this adversely affect the digestibility. Also the data is in agreement with Ojewola and Ozuo (2006) who reported that birds fed on diets containing 10%, 15% and 20% of PKC instead of soybean meal depressed the body weight when compared with control, Ezieshi and Olomu (2008) indicated that PKM (mechanically extracted) non significantly depressed broiler chicks weight while other PKM types highly depressed BW, while in contrast with those obtained by Okeudo et al (2005) stated that average BW of broilers was approximately 2 kg in each dietary group at the 8th weeks of age, and was not significantly affected by inclusion of PKC up to 30% of the diets. The difference may be related to that the authors used PKC in the broiler diet from the 3rd weeks of age while in the present experiment starting from the 1st day of chick's age. Also Okeudo et al (2006) reported that the final live weights of broilers fed the 0.0%, 15% and 30% PKC diets were similar (approximately 1.9 – 2.0 kg) and were significantly (P<0.05) than the live weights of broilers reared on the 45% PKC diet (1.5 kg).

 

Enzyme addition had non significant effect (P>0.05) improved BW in broiler chicks fed on the basal diet containing no PKC or with different inclusion levels of PKC (5%, 10%, 15% or 20%) by about 2.4%, 5.3%, 4.9%, 6.4% and 5.1% respectively when compared with broiler chicks fed on the same diet without enzyme supplementation. The present data is in agreement with Omojola and Adesehinwa (2007) indicated that the inclusion of the exogenous enzymes did not significantly (P>0.05) improve BW of broiler chicks.

 

Table 4 shows the effect of different dietary treatment on daily body gain (DBG), daily feed intake (DFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ration (PER) and efficiency of energy utilization (EEU) in broiler chicks.


Table 4.  Effect of palm kernel cake inclusion without or with enzyme supplementation on growth performance parameters of broiler chicks.

Items Groups No.

PKC inclusion levels, %

Without enzyme supplementation

With enzyme supplementation

Daily body gain, g/bird

1

0

48.50.03ax

49.60.04ax

2

5

46.70.02ax

49.10.02bx

3

10

45.80.02abx

47.90.03abx

4

15

43.90.05bx

46.20.09bx

5

20

44.10.03bx

46.50.03bx

Daily feed intake, g/bird

1

0

90.90.0ax

90.50.0ax

2

5

93.20.0ax

92.10.0ax

3

10

98.30.0ax

94.30.0abx

4

15

103.20.0bx

96.10.0bx

5

20

101.50.0bx

96.30.0bx

Feed conversion ratio (FCR)

1

0

1.870.04ax

1.830.05ax

2

5

1.980.03ax

1.870.02ax

3

10

2.180.04bx

1.970.18abx

4

15

2.350.18by

2.070.78bx

5

20

2.300.09by

2.070.36bx

Protein efficiency ratio (PER)*

1

0

2.710.14ax

2.780.15ax

2

5

2.590.13abx

2.750.12ax

3

10

2.410.14bx

2.630.18abx

4

15

2.210.18by

2.480.18bx

5

20

2.240.19by

2.490.16bx

Efficiency of energy utilization (EEU)*

1

0

5.750.34ax

5.580.35ax

2

5

6.010.43ax

5.680.42ax

3

10

6.420.34bx

5.880.38abx

4

15

6.930.38by

6.150.48bx

5

20

6.720.49by

6.040.36bx

Values are means standard error. Mean values with different letters at the same column (a - d letters) or row (x - y letters) and period differ significantly at (P≤0.05) * PER = weight gain (g)/protein intake (g). ** EEU = Energy consumed (Kcal) / Body weight gain (g).


Analysis of variance of the present data indicated that the inclusion of PKC at 5 or 10% non significantly (P>0.05) reduced daily body weight gain (DBG) by about 3.7% and 5.6% respectively when compared with control while, higher inclusion levels of PKC (15 and 20%) reduced (P<0.05) DBG by about 9.5% and 9.1% respectively. DBG improvement (P>0.05) was observed with enzyme supplementation by about 2.3%, 5.1%, 4.6%, 5.2% and 5.4% when compared with broiler chick group fed on the same diet without enzyme supplementation. The highest DBG was observed in broiler chick groups fed on the basal diet (No. 1) with enzyme supplementation followed by group fed on the basal diet (No. 2) with enzyme and the lowest DBG was observed in chick group fed on the highest level of PKC (No. 5) without enzyme.

 

Regarding daily feed intake (DFI) it was clear that PKC inclusion at 5% or 10% non-significantly increased DFI by about 2.5% and 8.1% respectively when compared with control while the higher PKC levels increased (P<0.05) DFI by about 13.5% and 11,7%. The slight lower DFI with 20% PKC inclusion compared with DFI by broiler chicks fed on diets containing 15% PKC may be due to the diet became unpalatable. On the hand PKC inclusion (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) in broiler chicks diets deteriorate feed conversion ratio (FCR) by about 5.8%, 16.5%, 25.6% and 23.0% respectively when compared with the control. Higher DFI by broiler chicks fed on diets containing PKC may be attributed to the lower metabolizable energy content of that diet and the higher DFI with depression of FCR are in agreement with those obtained by Ojewola and Ozuo (2006) observed that broiler fed 15% PKC in their diet exhibited higher feed intake and feed to gain ratio when compared with control and other broiler chick groups fed on lower levels of PKC. Also, Ezieshi and Olomu (2008) reported that there was higher DFI by broiler chick fed on mechanical pressed palm kernel. However, the present data are in contrast with Ezieshi and Olomu (2004) observed that no significant differences in DFI between broilers finishers fed 0%, 34% and 44.95% PKC diets, also Okeudo et al (2006) recorded that average DFI was similar across the different dietary inclusion levels of PKC (0, 15, 30 and 45%) for broilers chickens during finisher period. PKC inclusion in broiler diets at 5, 10, 15 or 20% deteriorate both PER and EEU by about (4.4%, 11.1%, 18.5% and 17.3%) and (4.5%, 11.7%, 20.5% and 16.7%) respectively when compared with control. There were indications that DBG and PER were negatively related to the dietary inclusion levels of PKC (Figures 2 and 5). 



 

Figure 2.  Relationship between PKC content enzyme without and with enzyme supplementation and daily body gain of  broiler chicks



 In contrast DFI, FCR and EEU were positively correlated with dietary inclusion levels of PKC (Figures 3, 4 and 6 respectively).  




 

Figure 3.  Relationship between PKC content  without or with enzyme supplementation and feed conversion ratio of broiler chicks               

Figure 4.  Relationship between PKC content without and with enzyme supplementation and daily feed intake  of broiler chicks

 


 

Figure 5.  Relationship between PKC content without or with enzyme supplementation and orotein efficiency ratio of broiler chicks

Figure 6. Relationship between PKC content without and with enzyme supplementation and efficiency of energy utilization of broiler chicks


Enzyme supplementation reduced DFI by about 0.45, 1.2%, 4.1%, 6.9% and 5.1% and improved FCR by about 2.1%, 5.6%, 9.6%, 11.9% and 10%, improved PER by about 2.6%, 6.2%, 9.1%, 12.2% and 11.1% and improved EEU by about 3%, 5.5%, 8.4%, 11.3% and 10.1%  respectively when compared with broiler chick group fed on the same diet without enzyme supplementation. Improvement of FCR, PER, EEU and lower DFI with enzyme supplementation may be attributed to the better feed utilization and it was clear that enzyme action is more pronounced with increasing PKC inclusion levels in broiler diets. These data are supported by Rahman et al (2005) indicated that enzyme supplementation improve growth rate and feed conversion in broiler chicks fed on diet containing parboiled rice polish and supplemented with exogenous enzymes.

 

Immune response

 

Table 5 illustrates the effects of PKC inclusion on the results of HI antibody titer to Newcastle disease vaccine of broiler chickens.


Table 5.  Effect of palm kernel cake inclusion without or with enzyme supplementation on hemagglutination inhibition (HI), Geometric mean antibody titer (log2) against ND virus of broiler chicks.

Age/day    Groups No.

PKC inclusion levels, %

Without enzyme supplementation

With enzyme supplementation

Fourteen days

1

0

1.830.1ax

1.730.2ax

2

5

1.790.2ax

1.690.2bx

3

10

1.680.1ax

1.650.1ax

4

15

1.740.2ax

1.820.1ax

5

20

1.820.1ax

1.810.1ax

Twenty four days:

1

0

3.210.2cx

3.310.1ax

2

5

3.410.2aabcx

3.430.1ax

3

10

3.520.1abx

3.610.2ax

4

15

3.590.2abx

3.720.2ax

5

20

3.700.2abx

3.550.1ax

Thirty four days:

1

0

3.620.2bx

3.520.2bx

2

5

3.890.3bx

3.920.2abx

3

10

4.210.2abx

4.420.2ax

4

15

4.350.2ax

4.510.2ax

5

20

4.490.1ax

4.550.3ax

Values are means standard error. Mean values with different letters at the same column (a - d letters) or row (x – y letters) and period differ significantly at (P≤0.05)


The analysis of variance of the obtained data showed non significant (P>0.05) variations in HI titer at 14th day of broiler chickens fed on different experimental diets. While, later during the experimental period PKC inclusion at different inclusion levels showed improvement in HI titer when compared with the control and the difference is more clearable effect at 34th days of broiler chicks age. PKC inclusion at 5% or 10% (groups 2 and 3 respectively) improved (P>0.05) HI titer against ND vaccine by about 7.5% and 16.3% respectively when compared with the control while, higher inclusion levels of PKC (15 and 20%) significantly (P<0.05) increased HI titer by about 20.2% and 24% respectively. On the other enzyme had no effect (P>0.05) HI titer of broiler chicks when compared with the chicks fed on the same diet without enzyme supplementation. Regression analysis of the obtained data indicated that there was a positively correlation between HI titer against ND vaccine and the dietary inclusion levels of PKC (figure 7).



 

Figure 7.  Relationship between PKC content without or with enzyme supplementation and HI antibody production of broiler chicks


The higher immune response of broiler chicks fed on different inclusion levels of PKC may be attributed to the higher percentage of -mannan and manno-oligosaccharides of PKC which acts as prebiotics. The present results are in agreement with those obtained by Sundu et al (2006) indicated that the inclusion of PKM in the diet improves the immune system of birds and reduces pathogenic bacteria and increases the population of non-pathogenic bacteria in the intestine.

 

PKC inclusion at lower level (5%) in broiler diets improved (P>0.05) phagocytic activity (table 6) by about 2% when compared with the control while, the higher inclusion levels (10%, 15% and 20%) of PKC significantly (P<0.05) increased phagocytic activity of broiler chicks by about 9%, 13.6% and 13.1% respectively when compared with control.


Table  6.  Effect of palm kernel cake inclusion without or with enzyme supplementation on phagocytic activity and phagocytic index of broiler chicks.

Items Groups No.

PKC inclusion levels, %

Without enzyme supplementation

With enzyme supplementation

Phagocytic activity

1

0

19.90.7bx

19.80.8bx

2

5

20.30.7abx

19.90.6bx

3

10

21.70.8ax

21.80.5abx

4

15

22.60.6ax

22.30.6ax

5

20

22.50.5ax

33.70.8ax

Phagocytic index

1

0

1.810.2ax

1.890.3ax

2

5

1.900.3ax

1.980.2bx

3

10

1.990.3ax

2.150.2cx

4

15

2.120.1ax

2.210.1ax

5

20

2.170.2ax

2.090.3ax

Values are means standard error. Mean values with different letters at the same column (a - d letters) or row (x – y letters) and period differ significantly at (P≤0.05)


On the other hand PKC a different inclusion levels improved (P>0.05) phagocytic index when compared with the control and enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on both phagocytic activity and index of broiler chickens when compared with the groups fed on the same diet without enzyme supplementation. On the other hand there were a positive relation between phagoctic activity & index and dietary inclusion levels of PKC (figures 8 and 9 respectively).



 

Figure 8.  Relationship between PKC content without and with enzyme
supplementation and phagocytic activity of broiler chicks

Figure 9.  Relationship between PKC content without or with enzyme
supplementation of the diet and phagcytic index of broiler chicks


In terms of humoral immune response, the results indicated that birds fed on PKC containing diets produced antibodies and the data supported by the results obtained by Ugwu et al (2008) reported that birds fed on 20% PKC had significantly higher improvement in hematological indices compared with control.

 

Carcass traits

 

The effects of PKC dietary inclusion on dressing percent and some organs (liver, gizzard, spleen, bursa, and thymus gland) weights relative to the live body weight of broiler chicks in different groups at the end of experimental period are summarized in table 7. 


Table 7.  Effect of palm kernel cake inclusion without or with enzyme supplementation on some carcass traits of broiler chicks

Items Groups No.

PKC inclusion levels, %

Without enzyme supplementation

With enzyme supplementation

Dressing %

1

0

70.61.4ax

71.51.5ax

2

5

70.51.5ax

71.31.4ax

3

10

69.91.3ax

71.61.2ax

4

15

71.21.6ax

71.91.1aex

5

20

71.11.2ax

71.41.5ax

Liver relative weight %

1

0

2.410.2ax

2.440.1ax

2

5

2.400.3ax

2.430.2bx

3

10

2.380.2ax

2.450.2ax

4

15

2.420.1ax

2.390.3ax

5

20

2.360.2ax

2.420.1ax

Gizzard relative weight %

1

0

2.140.2bx

2.090.1bx

2

5

2.300.3bx

2.430.2ax

3

10

2.880.2ax

2.750.2ax

4

15

2.950.1ax

2.890.3ax

5

20

3.120.2ax

2.970.1ax

Spleen relative weight %

1

0

0.110.02bx

0.100.02bx

2

5

0.130.01abx

0.130.02abx

3

10

0.150.01ax

0.160.01ax

4

15

0.140.01ax

0.150.02ax

5

20

0.160.02ax

0.140.02ax

Bursa relative weight%:

1

0

0.200.01ax

0.200.01ax

2

5

0.190.01ax

0.200.01ax

3

10

0.240.01ax

0.230.01ax

4

15

0.250.02bx

0.260.02ax

5

20

0.230.01bx

0.260.02cx

Thymus gland relative weight%:

1

0

0.390.01ax

0.410.03ax

2

5

0.410.02ax

0.400.03ax

3

10

0.420.03ax

0.420.02ax

4

15

0.460.03ax

0.440.03ax

5

20

0.430.02ax

0.450.03ax

Values are means standard error. Mean values with different letters at the same column (a - d letters) or row (x - y letters) and period differ significantly at (P≤0.05)


Analysis of variance of the data revealed that PKC dietary inclusion at different levels had no effect on dressing percent and liver relative weight when compared with the control. While, gizzard size was  non significantly increased (P>0.05) with 5% inclusion of PKC and highly increased (P<0.05) by about 34.6%, 37.6% and 45.8% with 10%, 15% and 20% PKC addition in broiler diets respectively when compared with control. This is in accordance with Okeudo et al (2005) stated that gizzard size was significantly affected by the inclusion of PKC in the broiler diet. Moreover the higher gizzard size with inclusion of PKC in broiler diets may be related to the higher dietary fiber content (Kubena et al 1974, Deaton et al 1977, Onwudike 1986). Enzyme supplementation non significantly improved dressing percent and had no effect on liver and gizzard relative weight when compared with broiler chick group fed on the same diet without enzyme supplementation. The data is in agreement with Omojola and Adesehinwa (2007) reported that the inclusion of the exogenous enzyme of broiler diets did not affect the relative weights of kidney, gizzard, heart and liver.

 

In regards to immune organs, PKC inclusion at 5% of broiler diet non significantly increased spleen relative weight by about 18% while, significantly (P<0.050 improved spleen relative weight with PKC addition at 10%, 15% and 20% by about 36.4%, 27.3% and 45.5% respectively when compared with control. Moreover PKC dietary inclusion at different levels non significantly improved bursa and thymus gland relative weights when compared with control. Also enzyme supplementation had no effect on spleen, bursa and thymus gland relative weights when compared with chick group fed on the same diet without enzyme supplementation.

 

Conclusion 

 

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Received 7 December 2008; Accepted 1 January 2009; Published 10 March 2009

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