Livestock Research for Rural Development 21 (3) 2009 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD News

Citation of this paper

A financing system for the control of tick-borne diseases in pastoral herds: The Kambala (Tanzania) model

G K Mbassa*, F O K Mgongo**, L S B Melau***, J E D Mlangwa***, R S Silayo****, E N Bimbita****, A A Hayghaimo****** and E R Mbiha***** 

*Department of Veterinary Anatomy
mbassa@suanet.ac.tz

**Department of Surgery and Theriogenology,

***Department of Medicine and Public Health,

****Department of Microbiology and Parasitology,

*****Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3016, Morogoro and

******Livestock Extension Office, Mvomero District, P.O. Box 747, Morogoro, Tanzania

Abstract 

Organizational skills of farmers in Kambala were improved to address financing of the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBD). Dipping exercises were conducted bi-weekly. Individual animals were dipped fortnightly at a fee and a fund was established from which a cooperative society was formed. To monitor TTBD lymph nodes and blood samples were analysed (n = 1615 calves, ages 1 - 10 weeks).

 

Theileria piroplasms were observed in 9.8% and 16.2% of calves of < 42 days and > 42 days, respectively. Lymph nodes of calves < 6 weeks were not enlarged while enlargement rates in 43-56, 57-69 and > 70 days old calves were 41.5%, 40.3%, 34.9%, respectively. Packed cell volumes, haemoglobin concentration, red and white blood cell counts were low in all calves. After four years of continuous dipping analysis indicated a net benefit of US $ 116,278.60 and that the endemic stability model reduced amount of acaricides used. Calving rates increased from <40% to >75%, disease incidence rates declined, calf mortalities decreased from >41.5% to < 2% and calf survival rates increased from 58% to 98%.

 

It was concluded that the Kambala model reduces costs and offers a community based approach to fund TTBD control.

Key words: acaricidal application, control, endemic stability, tick-borne diseases


Introduction

Ticks are efficient vectors of disease agents, costing the cattle industry heavily in Sub-Saharan Africa. All ages and breeds of cattle are susceptible to both ticks and tick-borne diseases (Kivaria 2006a). Economically, the most important tick-borne disease (TBD) in East and Central Africa is theileriosis, in particular Theileria parva infection, generally known as East Coast fever (ECF), but babesiosis, anaplasmosis and cowdriosis or heartwater also occur at variable incidence rates (Kivaria 2006a). The actual TTBD losses are caused directly by death of animals and loss of production or indirectly through the costs of control and reduced production capability. Mukhebi et al (1992) estimated theileriosis caused losses of US$ 168 million in Eastern Africa alone, and recent observations indicate direct losses due to TTBD in Tanzania to reach US$ 364 million annually, mainly due to death of > 1.3 million cattle; 68% caused by theileriosis, 13% by anaplasmosis, 13% by babesiosis and 6% by cowdriosis (Kivaria 2006a, Kivaria et al 2007). Tick infestations cause irritation, wounds, anaemia and death due to blood loss (Figure 1).



Figure 1.
  The inguinal region of a 3 month old male zebu calf, with heavy tick infestation


Ticks retard weight gain due to haemorrhages and toxins that impair cattle’s appetite. Tick-borne diseases (TBD) delay attainment of slaughter weight by retarding weight gains, impair cattle health leading to lowered calving rates, weak or diseased offspring, condemned carcass and organs, downgraded meat, increased costs of disposal of dead animals, decreased milk production, inferior hides and skins, reduced production life span, loss of labour animals and enhanced costs of veterinary services (drugs, laboratory diagnosis, surveillance, regulation compliance, vaccinations, administration, training, prophylaxis, cleaning, dipping and others) (Mukhebi et al 1992). These losses vary within and among countries, due to differences in livestock production systems and type of disease control method in place.

 

The conventional method of controlling ticks and therefore tick-borne diseases (TBD) is to kill ticks by means of application of large amounts of acaricides to the surface of an animal through plunge dipping, spraying or hand-washing. The frequency of acaricidal application depends on the acaricidal agent but is on average twice per week. In Tanzania, dipping services are provided through privately owned dip tanks and commercially run dip tanks. In Tanzania, dipping is not subsidized by the government and is not compulsory, therefore faces challenges of lack of finances for refurbishment of dip tanks, and provision of acaricides and water. Dipping is consequently expensive, incoherent and inconsistent (Kivaria 2006a, Kivaria 2006b, Eisler et al 2003, Mugisha et al 2005).

 

Other means of TBD control include immunization of cattle (Di Giulio et al 1997; Norimine et al 2003). All immunization control measures against tick-borne diseases are expensive and are directed against ECF, since ECF is the most severe of the TBD. Immunization is done by injecting T. parva sporozoites of infected Rhipicephallus appendiculatus ticks and simultaneously treating the animal with 30% oxytetracycline (Ruheta et al 1996, Toye et al 1996, Di‑Giulio et al 1997, Mbassa et al 1998a, Mbassa et al 1998b). However, immunization faces several obstacles; the tick stabilate vaccine may cause fatal disease, requires continuous cold chain of liquid nitrogen for storage and therefore is expensive, is not protective against all types of T. parva genotypes and has unpredictable duration of immunity. Molecular vaccines earlier expected to spearhead TTBD control (Nene et al 1996, Honda et al 1998, Skilton et al 1998) are so far not available on the Eastern Africa market.

 

Subsequent to the above mentioned scenarios on TTBD control and based on the frequency and efficiency of acaricide application, three types of TTBD control methods are practiced; regular application of acaricide at short intervals to get rid of all ticks, intermittent application of acaricides to reduce tick burden and no application at all of acaricides (commonly known as the zero action method). In all instances the type of control measure to be used is decided by the farmer without considering the neighbour. The lack of uniformity amongst pastoralists clearly indicates that there is widespread individualism in the practical application of TTBD control.

 

Animals on the zero action method against TTBD are believed to achieve endemic stability to TTBD (Mbassa 1992, Lynen et al 2000), where adult cattle acquire immunity against subsequent haemoparasitic infections and severe diseases only occurring in calves and young animals.



Figure 2
.
 Zebu calves, very poor status, 4-8 weeks old, on zero TTBD control method


This concept of control based on costless zero action is practiced by transhumance livestock owners, even without scientific advice or foundation. Majority of transhumance livestock owners do not dip their animals in acaricides in belief of development of endemic stability, but the reality is that calf mortalities reach up to 80% (Silayo et al 1996). Calves are infected naturally with haemoparasites within four weeks of birth and in the absence of acaricide application, their health status decline severely and succumb to high mortality rates (Mbassa et al 1993, Gwamaka et al 2002).



Figure 3.
 Zebu calves, stunted growth, 5-6 months old, on zero control method


Furthermore, throughout the nineteenth century until today, TTBD continue to kill grazing cattle in herds practising the zero action control method (Peter et al 2005, Kivaria 2006b, Torr et al 2007, Mbassa et al 2007), against the belief and expectations that lack of tick control automatically leads to endemic stability.

 

T. parva infection is dose dependent and the occurrence of clinical disease depends on presence of T. parva infected ticks and their infection rates. Animals dipped regularly at short intervals remove all ticks and lose their immunity and therefore fail to achieve endemic stability (Regassa et al 2003, Swai et al 2005). The conditions of endemic stability in nature cannot be ascertained because tick numbers and their T. parva infection rates vary with climate and weather. Perry et al (1985) observed that endemic stability developed in cattle under weekly dipping in acaricides for years. Therefore, endemic stability requires continuous low parasite challenge to boost the acquired immunity. It is also apparent that endemic stability is influenced by the degree of parasitaemia and the T. parva genotype. Low T. parva parasitaemia culminates in carrier states in cattle while high parasitaemia in cattle leads to high piroplasm infection rates in ticks. Ticks engorging on carrier cattle pick up low numbers of piroplasms, passing on to new cattle hosts low parasite sporozoite numbers that result in mild or no disease. Low pathogenic T. parva stocks have been used in immunization against the disease and in facilitating development and achievement of endemic stability.

 

Deductions derived from this knowledge are that any reliable TTBD control method in pastoral herds in transhumance systems must take into account of frequency and irregularity in dipping, the endemic stability model, inconsistencies in funding and should make the maintenance of dipping the responsibility of pastoralists.  There are many factors and constraints that influence the smooth running of dips. If these factors and constraints could be identified and overcome, dipping would be expected to improve substantially. Peter et al (2005) report that farmers when organized can contribute to TTBD control. Endemic stability model, when correctly applied, may reduce the frequency of dipping animals. The hypothesis of this study was that improving organizational skills of farmers and organizing them to address the problem of funding in TTBD control and consolidating the endemic stability model through long intervals (2 -3 weeks) of dipping may produce an economically viable and sustainable TTBD control method. This study therefore aimed at testing this hypothesis and thus creating a reliable financing mechanism for TTBD control.

 

Materials and methods 

Study area and the livestock farming system

 

This study was conducted at a pastoral village of Kambala, Mvomero district, Morogoro region in Eastern Tanzania. Kambala lies between latitudes 6 00’ - 6 30’ South and longitudes 37 30’ - 38 00’ East. The area has a semi-arid climate characterized by two distinct seasons, namely, the dry season from July to October and the rainy season from November to June. The Kambala area is plain, lightly wooded savannah grassland, with short grass, shrubs and numerous different species of thorny acacia trees (local name Mikambala). This village has a total area of about 16,000 hectares and was registered by the Government of Tanzania in 1968 as a village.

 

The livestock production system in Kambala is transhumance, with Tanganyika short horn zebu cattle grazing on communal land during the day and kept in enclosures or open pastures near temporary homes during nights. Cattle reside in the village during the rainy season and move to green pastures northwards in Maasai steppes in Handeni, Simanjiro and Kiteto districts during the dry season between August and October. Private and public para-veterinarians provide the veterinary services to these communities. The village is served with two plunge dips and a few farmers possess hand operated or motorized spray pumps for use in the control of ticks on their animals.

 

This village has a human population of 3000 inhabitants in 200 families, majority being pastoralists on transhumance livestock farming system.  A household (HH) is a family or living unit, headed by a male or female member, caring for a cattle herd on which they depend for their economic livelihoods.

 

Determination of factors and constraints limiting livestock farming

 

Three participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods were used to determine livestock farming systems and constraints (ILCA working paper 1 1990; SEAGA 2001), namely, village meetings, individual contacts and collecting information available from public institutions. Information was obtained on knowledge and understanding of prevailing livestock farming systems, the problems and constraints that limit livestock production. During the initial stages of the PRA, brainstorming sessions with farmers and the experts were held for the purpose of producing a questionnaire. Using semi-structured questionnaires interviews were performed on all 200 households in the village to determine the HH characteristics, number of cattle per HH, household income, TTBD and other disease patterns, methods of disease control, perceptions on tick and tsetse control and willingness to pay for veterinary services. Farmers were asked to rank livestock problems and constraints related to dipping and animal health in order of importance and priorities to their economic development. This information was similarly determined on 24 farmers (HH), selected on basis of willingness to dip animals and participate in the PRA, in the second (July 2004 to June 2005), third (2005-2006) and fourth (2006-2007) year of the study.

 

An economic opportunity survey (EOS) was performed according to the methods of ILCA working paper one (1990) and Nordlund et al (2007) on the 24 selected households. EOS collected information on animal reproductive and production rates (calving, mortality, survival, culling, offtake rates, borne calves and prices of various categories of livestock on the market) and common causes of economic losses in cattle. Calf mortality rate was calculated by taking the number of calves dying (up to one year of age) divided by the total number of calves born, alive or dead during the same period. This information was similarly determined in the second, third and fourth (2006-2007) year of the study.

 

Tick and tick borne disease intervention strategies

 

Two plunge dips available in the village were reconstructed and used for dipping animals twice monthly in cypermethrin pyrethroid acaricides. The running costs for dipping were evaluated and a sustainable funding mechanism involving individual livestock keepers developed and put in place. A diesel run generator was used to pump up water from an underground well. The entire water plumbing system for the village was rehabilitated and water meters to monitor water consumption were installed at strategic places including near the plunge dip. A water pump for removal of dirt water from the dip tanks during refilling was installed near the plunge dip. Costs for dip reconstruction, the generator, the water pump, plumbing works, water meters, water in the plunge dip tanks and acaricides were all paid for by this study. However dipping was charged at 100 Tanzanian shillings (US$ 0.08) per animal and the collected revenue banked. The revenue was continuously collected for 4 years and used in the fifth year after establishment of a Livestock Farmers Cooperative Society. The dip tank was cleaned, filled with water and replenished with acaricides by farmers.

 

Examination of haemoparasite infections in calves

 

In order to understand the risks and prevalence rates of T. parva and other haemoparasites, 1615 calves of <10 weeks of age including newly born were randomly selected and clinically examined. Age of calves was determined through owner’s records, umbilical stump and hair pattern. The presence of clinical signs of theileriosis was assessed by examination of prescapula and parotid lymph nodes and blood smears. The sizes of right and left prescapula and parotid lymph nodes were measured. Any lymph node (left or right or both) measuring more than 3 cm in length was categorized as enlarged, indicating infection. Blood from each calf (3-10 ml) was collected aseptically from the external jugular vein into 10 ml vacuum tubes (Vacutainer Dickinson B-D United Kingdom) coated with potassium ethylene amino-tetracetate (K3EDTA) using 20 gauge needles. Blood smears were prepared and stained with Giemsa stain for light microscopic examination of T. parva, anaplasma and babesia piroplasms and other haemoparasites. Blood was analysed using standard methods for determination of erythrocyte (red blood cell, RBC) and total and differential leukocyte (white blood cell, WBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and packed cell volume (PCV).

 

Cost benefit analysis

 

Cost benefit analysis was performed and involved comparing of costs and returns from dipping benefits. The costs included cost of running the dips, in terms of acaricide and water supply and supervision. The financial support provided through research funds to cover dipping costs was also included in the village costs. The benefits involved animals available for sale per year and calculations based on animals for sale as a summation of offtake and culling rates, and direct cash revenue from dipping fees charged per animal.

 

Statistical analysis

 

Data obtained from questionnaires were analyzed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Data on haematological values were analyzed by excel. Descriptive statistics were analyzed to determine frequencies, means and standard deviations. Comparative analyses were conducted using ci-square and t – tests.

 

Results 

Incomes of farmers

 

In the year 2003 all 200 households of the Kambala village had a total of 37,752 heads of cattle which gave an average of 198 (140 females and 58 males) per HH (Table 1).


Table 1.  Livestock population in 200 households at Kambala in the year 2003 to 2007

Year

Population

Type of animal

Cattle

Goat

Sheep

First

2003 – 2004

Total*

37,572

11,264

6,505

Mean sd

197 51

60 60

34 23

Range

12 – 2,295

10 – 350

7 – 100

Second

2004 – 2005

Total*

47,658

11,711

7,056

Mean sd

249 59

61 58

35 19

Range

10 – 2,317

10 – 363

5 – 116

Third

20005 – 2006

Total**

61,117

12,121

7,109

Mean sd

307 68

63 48

37 22

Range

12 – 2,390

12 – 368

10 – 120

Fourth

2006 – 2007

Total**

70,400

13,003

7,118

Mean sd

352 62

63 58

37 22

Range

12 – 2,415

11 – 371

8 – 122

sd = standard deviation, totals with similar  subscripts (*) are not different


The village had also large flocks of indigenous breeds of sheep and goats. Most of the farmers kept cattle, goats and sheep but earned more than 50% of their family income from cattle. The actual income o in the 200 HH varied between US$109 and 6,600 in 2003 and varied between US$ 219.20 and 7,125 in 2007 (Table 2).


Table 2.  The annual household income  from cattle sales in Kambala in 2003 to 2007

Research year

Calendar year

Household income, $

Standard deviation

Lowest

 

Mean

First

2003-2004

109.1

227.8

1035.0

227.8

Second

2004-2005

112.3

329.2

1170.0

329.2

Third

2005-2006

150.5

311.0

1254.0

311.0

Fourth

2006-2007

219.2

283.6

1249.5

283.6

$ = United States of America dollar,
 similar subscripts (*) are not different


There was a slight decrease in household incomes in 2004-2005 in few of the households, probably because of diseases or scarcity of animal feeds. However incomes increased again in 2005-2006, the year that registered greatest increases in revenue in some individual farmers (Table 3a and b).


Table 3a.  Cattle production rates for female animals in Kambala in 2003/2004 to 2006/2007

Cattle age (years) group

Number of animals and % in herd

2003/4

2004/5

2005/6

2006/7

Calves 0-1 year

Number

37.0

39.0

44.0

55.0

% of herd

26.4

24.8

22.9

26.3

Mortality %

41.5

23.0

17.0

6.0

Selling %

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Survival %

58.5

77.0

83.0

94.0

Yearling 1-<4 yr

Number

22.0

21.0

36.0

42.0

% of herd

15.7

13.4

18.8

20.1

Mortality %

6.0

3.0

4.0

2.0

Selling %

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Survival %

93.0

96.0

95.0

97.0

Adults 4-<6 yr

Number

47.0

21.0

31.0

34.0

% of herd

33.6

13.4

16.1

16.3

Mortality %

6.0

3.0

4.0

2.0

Culling %

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Selling %

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Survival %

93.0

96.0

95.0

97.0

Adults 6-<8 yr

Number

34.0

44.0

52.0

39.0

% of herd

24.3

28.0

27.1

18.7

Mortality %

6.0

3.0

4.0

2.0

Culling %

0.0

0.0

5.0

5.0

Selling %

1.0

1.0

0.0

1.0

Survival %

93.0

96.0

91.0

92.0

Adults >8

Number

0.0

32.0

29.0

39.0

% of herd

0.0

20.4

15.1

18.6

Mortality %

6.0

3.0

4.0

2.0

Culling %

40.0

5.0

40.0

40.0

Selling %

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Survival %

54.0

92.0

56.0

58.0

Total

 

140

157

192

209



Table 3b.  Cattle production rates for male animals in Kambala in 2003/2004 to 2006/2007

Cattle age (years) group

Number of animals and % in herd

2003/4

2004/5

2005/6

2006/7

Calves 0-1 yr

Number

36.0

39.0

44.0

55.0

% of males

62.1

41.9

37.9

38.5

Mortality %

41.5

23.0

17.0

6.0

Survival %

58.5

87.0

83.0

94.0

Yearling 1-<4 yr

Number

9.0

21.0

36.0

42.0

% of males

15.5

22.6

31.0

29.4

Mortality %

6.0

3.0

4.0

2.0

Selling %

5.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Survival %

89.0

96.0

95.0

97.0

Adults 4-< 6 yr

Number

5.0

16.0

17.0

22.0

% of males

8.6

17.2

14.6

15.4

Mortality %

6.0

3.0

4.0

2.0

Culling %

0.0

20.0

0.0

0.0

Selling %

5.0

0.0

50.0

30.0

Survival %

89.0

77.0

46.0

68.0

Adults 6-< 8 yr

Number

5.0

12.0

8.0

13.0

% of males

8.6

12.9

6.9

9.0

Mortality %

6.0

3.0

4.0

2.0

Culling %

0.0

5.0

10.0

5.0

Selling %

5.0

64.0

35.0

66.0

Survival %

89.0

28.0

51.0

27.0

Adults >8

Number

3.0

5.0

11.0

11.0

% of males

5.2

5.4

9.6

7.7

Mortality %

6.0

3.0

4.0

2.0

Culling %

30.0

40.0

30.0

45.0

Selling %

30.0

30.0

30.0

40.0

Survival %

34.0

27.0

36.0

13.0

Total

 

58

93

116

143


Disease occurrence patterns and methods used for control

 

The most common infectious diseases described by livestock keepers and supported by veterinary records were East Coast fever (ECF), anaplasmosis and trypanosomosis (Table 4).


Table 4.  Qualitative frequency of diseases reported by Kambala village residents (n=200)

Frequency1

ECF2

ANAP3

BABE4

HEAR5

TRYP6

HELM7

CBPP8

FMD9

Very high

155 (77.5)

770 (35.0)

32 (16.0)

18 ((9.0)

118 (59.0)

57  (28.5)

136 (68.0)

55  (27.5)

high

45 (22.5)

554 (27.0)

100 (50.0)

41 (20.5)

77 (38.5)

142  (71.0)

62 (31.0)

139 (69.5)

low

0

63 (31.5)

67 (33.5)

103 (51.5)

5  (2.5)

1  (5)

2 (1.0)

6  (3.0)

Very low

0

13 ((6.5)

1 (5)

226 (13.0)

0

0

0

0

no

0

0

0

12  (6)

0

0

0

0

Frequency1 = frequency of disease occurrence rating, ECF2 = East Coast fever, ANAP3 = anaplamosis, BABE4 = Babesiosis, HEAR5 = heart water, TRYP6 = Trypanosomosis, HELM7= helminthosis, CBPP8 = Contagious Pleuro – Pneumonia,
FMD9 = Foot Mouth Disease


Forty percent of the households ranked ECF as the most important, followed by anaplasmosis (38.5%), trypanosomosis (36.5%), contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP; 27.5%), helminthoses (26%), lumpy skin disease (25%) and foot and mouth disease (FMD; 5.5%). ECF, anaplasmosis and babesiosis were together ranked to be major tick-borne diseases affecting cattle herd growth. Highest incidence rates of TBD occur in the dry season in July to October as recorded by 45% of the farmers. Non-infectious diseases and conditions recorded as known to pastoralists were injuries, predators and snake bites.

 

Control measures employed by farmers for these diseases varied from no action, manual removal of ticks from the animals to application of acaricide through sprays. However, ticks were numerous and diseases continued to occur at high incidence rates (Fig. 1) and consequently animals were stunted (Fig. 2 and 3). A certain proportion of livestock farmers (24.5%) attributed the failure of effective TBD control to lack of functional dips, expensive acaricides and high priced curative animal drugs (38.5%), lack of veterinary services (15%) and little knowledge on diseases (7%). TTBD, tsetse and trypanosomosis were controlled by 94.5 % of the farmers by application of acaricides and only 5.5% of the households were not using acaricides at all. The most common mode of application of acaricides was by spraying and 46% pastoralists had their own hand operated or motorized spray pumps. Many pastoralists were of the general perception that tick and tsetse fly control requires a working dip (93%). Many pastoralists (78%) also were willing to pay for TTBD control and veterinary services; in fact they were already paying. Further information is recorded in Table 5.


Table 5.  Causes of livestock production losses and constraint in Kambala in 2003 -2007

Category of constraint

Household

Number

Percent

Animal diseases

196

98

High prices for acaricide, drugs and veterinary equipment

198

99

Lack of capital and financial credits

200

100

Scarcity of water and grazing land

199

99.5

Scarcity of labour

194

97

Lack of high productive cattle breeds

174

87

Lack of technical knowledge and information

197

98.5

Livestock thefts

200

100

Lack of feeds during dry season

198

99

Low livestock prices at markets

194

97

Poor livestock markets

198

99

Poor roads

108

54

Lack of veterinary and animal production equipment

198

99


Causes of financial losses in Kambala pastoralist livestock system

 

The causes of production losses in livestock included animal diseases, high prices of acaricide, drugs and veterinary equipment, lack of capital, deficient in financial credits, scarcity of water and grazing land, unavailability of labour, lack of high productive cattle breeds, lack of technical knowledge and information, livestock thefts, lack of feeds in the dry season, low livestock prices, poor markets, poor roads, and lack of veterinary equipment. The lack of veterinary equipment was rated a very important constraint in 71 pastoralists (35.5%), just important in 47% and of less importance in 27.5% HH.

 

Livestock productivity rates

 

In the year 2002 to 2003 the calving rate for adult female cattle was reported to be between 0 and 57% (Table 6).


Table 6.  Herd size, mortality and calving rates in 24 herds in Kambala  in  2002  to 2007

Year

Herd size range (total), n

Herd size, n

Female > 4 years (41% of herd)

Calving rate % range, mean

Deaths range, total

Mortality rate, %,  range (mean)

2002

15-900 (5169)

215

2120

33-77 (55.2)

0-20 (133)

0-17 (5.0)

2003

19-886 (5434)

226

2228

42-75 (71.8)

0-50 (233)

0-29 (6.0)

2004

25-879 (5535)

231

2270

44-87 (74.0)

3-12 (78)

0-24 (3.0)

2005

28-546 (6140)

218

2518

44-86 (75.1)

0-20 (124)

0-29 (4.0)

2006

25-600 (7040)

352

2887

45-63 (75.4)

0-23 (126)

0-23(2.0)

n = number of cattle


Mortality rate for calves was at 41.5%. There was an increase in calving rates partly due to increases in animal numbers and also in decline in mortality rates. Further information is recorded in Table 7.


Table 7.  Calf mortality rates in 24 selected herds in Kambala in the year 2002 to 2007

Year

Calves deaths in 200 pastoralist herds

Calf  deaths (calf mortality rate %)  in 24 selected pastoral herds

Range

Total

Mean sd

Mortality rate, %

Range and total

Mean mortality

Range and mean sd

2002

 

 

 

 

0-40 (210)

910

0-100 (4126)

2003

2-211

6083

3157

41.544.1

0-40 (228)

109

0-100 (4127)

2004

 

 

0-30 (184)

89

0-70 (2321)

2005

 

 

0-30 (141)

67

0-38 (1711)

2006

 

 

0-40 (137)

610

0-46 (613)

sd = standard deviation


Benefits achieved following dipping at intervals longer than seven days included reduced amounts of acaricide used, declined calf mortalities from 41.5% in the first year to 6% in the fourth year. There was an increase in calving rates from 55.2% (range 0 to 57%) in the first year to 75.4% in the fourth year. Cattle sales also increased from 5-8 animals sold per two weeks in the year 2003 to 30-40 animals sold per two weeks in the year 2007. Further data is recorded in Table 8.


Table 8.  Cattle sales, sales revenue (Kilo*-Tshs**) and mean cattle prices (Kilo-Tshs) in 20 herds of transhumance livestock of Kambala village in 2002 - 2007

Year

Cattle sold range (total), n

Mean  sold in herd, n

Off-take rate, %

Cattle price

Kilo-Tshs range, mean

Revenue from cattle sales
(range, Total mean), n

Income per
household, $

2002

1-30 (241)

10

4.7

40-300 (132.7)

120-5500

796.9

33,875

1,411.60

2003

1-50 (337)

14

6.2

32 - 301.7 (111.5)

70-6,000

1,417.3

35,700

1,487.50

2004

1-100 (353)

15

6.4

50 – 220 (122.4)

70-5,000

1578.0

47,264

1,969.30

2005

1-70 (389)

13

7.4

58.3 - 300 (145.7)

200 – 11,000

3417.7

40,081

2,309.90

2006

1-23 (421)

25

8.0

45.0 -600 (165.6)

75.0-7,200

4329.1

59,455

2,210.60

 

Kilo* = kilogram, Tshs** = Tanzania shilling, n = number of animals, $ = United States of America dollar


Milk sales also increased, and as a result a livestock market and a milk collection centre were established in the village.

 

Haematologic and haemoparasitic analysis in calves

 

Haematological values in calves between 1 week and 10 weeks did not differ significantly (Table 9).


Table 9.  Mean packed cell volume (PCV l/l), haemoglobin concentration (Hb mmol/l), Red blood cell count (RBC x1012/l)), White blood cell count (WBC x109/l) in calves not showing and calves showing swollen lymph nodes

Age, days

Calves, n

Calves#, % n

Calves ##, % n

PCV, l/l

Hb, mmol/l

RBC, x1012/l

WBC, x109/l

1 - 2

76

0

0

0.230.06

3.0 0.4

4.4 0.6

4.7 0.3

3 – 4

89

0

0

0.30 0.87

8.0 0.9

6.9 1.9

7.6 2.8

5 – 13

116

0

0

0.30 .03

7.8 1.3

6.54 1.9

8.8 3.1

14 – 21

127

0

0

0.35 0.06

7.1 1.5

6.4 1.8

8.8 2.0

22 - 27

141

0

0

0.360.04

8.21.9

6.21.3

9.2 1.2

28 – 42

277

3 (1.7%)

0

0.380.03

8.81.5

6.41.2

9.0 1.4

43 – 56

293

103 (41.5%)

35 (14.1%)

0.340.09

7.61.7

6.41.0

8.6 1.8

57 – 69

201

127 (40.3%)

47 (14.9%)

0.350.06

8.51.6

7.01.8

9.2 10.5

70

190

122 (34.9%)

66(18.9%)

0.340.09

7.32.5

6.71.4

11.4 3.8

>70

913

352(38.6%)

148(16.2%)

 

 

 

 

Total

1510

355  (23.5%)

148  (9.8%)

 

 

 

 

Calves# = number of calves not having swollen lymph nodes, Calves## = numbers of calves showing swollen lymph nodes


Clinical examination revealed many calves at the age of 42 days and above had their prescapular and parotid lymph nodes swollen indicating a clinical sign of theileriosis. Incidence rates of theileria and anaplasma piroplasms in giemsa stained blood smears of calves were 24.7% (or 399/1615) and 6.4% (or 103/1615) for anaplasmosis. No haemoparasites were detected for babesiosis and heart water after use of acaricides.

 

In the year 2003, Kambala’s cattle population was 37,752 and consisted mainly of the Tanganyika short horn zebu (TSZ). In 2005, more than 100,000 cattle dipping had already been carried out with an average of 1000 animals dipped per week and thus generating more than US$ 10,000. In 2006, 59,000 cattle from 195 households were dipped (Table 10). Better animals were available for sale after continuous dipping.


Table 10.  Revenue from dipping revenue

Year

Animals Dipped

Weekly revenue, $

Revenue, $

2003/2004

1,280

108.02

864.14

2004/2005

2,700

227.85

10708.86

2005/2006

3300

278.48

14481.01

2006/2007

3800

320.68

16675.11

$ = United States of America dollar


The cash accrued from dipping revenue and shown in Table 11 was deposited in a bank and consolidated into a fund for use in the control of TTBD.


Table 11.  Combined cash benefits from animal sales and dipping revenues (US$)

Year

Costs

Benefits

Actual costs

Discounting factor

Discounted costs

Actual benefits

Discounted benefits

Net benefits

2003/2004

15,189.87

0.87

13,215.19

29,218.57

25,420.15

12,204.96

2004/2005

15,189.87

0.756

11,483.54

42,270.04

31,956.15

20,472.61

2005/2006

15,189.87

0.658

9,994.94

82,835.44

54,505.72

44,510.78

2006/2007

15,189.87

0.572

8,688.61

103,257.40

59,063.22

50,374.62

Net present value

60,759.49

 

43,382.28

257,581.40

170,945.20

127,563.0

The benefit cost ratio (B/C) ratio was 2.94.


There were challenges regarding the owner, custody and authentic use of the fund. Since dipping was voluntary and funds were received from those who were dipping animals, it was decided that the funds belong to pastoralist members who were dipping. To install a responsible system of revenue collection and fund custody the farmers who were dipping animals established a cooperative society, the Laramatak Livestock Farmers Cooperative Society, the purposes of which were to collectively control livestock diseases. A constitution was written and the society registered as a legal entity. Pastoralists improved their organizational skills as empowerment continued.


Discussion

In East and Central Africa ticks and tick-borne diseases contribute tremendously to general health of cattle. Dipping of cattle is mandatory in these areas (De Castro 1997, Kagaruki 1997, Okello-Onen et al 1998) if animals are to be maintained at reasonably good health. This study observed great reduction in calf and adult animal mortalities and substantial increase in growth rates after dipping. The cattle population in the village increased from 37,752 to 60,000, which when interpreted in term of household income is a substantial increase. Livestock grades improved because weights increased and when interpreted in terms of contribution to household income indicates a substantial increase. Cattle sales increased from 5-8 animals per two weeks to 30-40 animals per two weeks; consequently a livestock market was established in the village to cater for the increased animal population. For a similar purpose a milk holding centre was established in the village. Because there was an efficient TTBD control system, animal numbers increased and definitely the farmers’ livelihoods improved.

 

Economically, importance of tick-borne diseases is not limited to the losses caused by death of the animals. Another important area of loss which is not always taken into consideration is the loss of production potential. The productivity of the zebu in pastoral herds is reported to be less than half of the genetical potential largely because of disease (Eisler et al 2003, Mgongo et al 2007). The loss can of course be avoided by intensive tick-borne diseases control and good veterinary care, as was done in this study. However, the cost of control takes away part of the gain associated with increased productivity (Silayo et al 1996, Eisler et al 2003). The use of the endemic stability model in this study reduced the costs of dipping by half. Animals were dipped once in 2 weeks instead of four times recommended by the conventional model. By using the principal of endemic stability it was possible to dip animals once in two weeks with good results. The endemic stability model reduces the amount of acaricide required per animal per unit time and therefore reduces the costs of dipping.

 

The question is how to sustain such a control system. This study addressed the question of finances for sustainable TTBD control and eradication (TTBDCE). The villagers where assisted to work as a team and persuaded to pay a reasonable fee when dipping animals. The revolving fund accrued from dipping revenue was the single powerful method of generating sustainability and eradication of tick and tick borne diseases at the village. This model may be adopted and used to control TTBD at farm, village, community, and district and country level. The community based model depicted by the Livestock Farming Cooperative society should manage the disease control programme and funds. This is essential because in most cases village administration does not appropriately manage public funds. The cost-benefit analysis gave a net benefit of Tanzania shillings 151,162,120 (equivalent to USA $ 116,278.60) in the four years. This shows that the system is a viable economic project.

 

The revenue from dipping animals is expected to increase as the Lalamatak Livestock Farmers Cooperative Society expands through recruitment of more members. The Laramatak society will make its own rules and regulations for dipping, revenue collection, water allocation and other matters. At the moment it is impossible to address issues of non compliance with revenue collection, paying at dipping and even the use of water troughs that are set aside for livestock that is dipping. There are a number of pastoralists who gate crush to obtain water for their animals without paying the agreed charges. There is a great potential of increasing the revenue accrued to more than Tanzania shillings 15,000,000 if dipping is to be compulsory by law. This approach will eradicate ticks and tick-borne diseases, and greatly reduce poverty among communities or eradicate it completely. Poverty is already reduced in Kambala village. Kambala today has fast economic growth as evidenced by the on-going house construction and increases in numbers of items purchased such as power generators, television sets, bicycles, motor cycles, pick-up trucks and clothes.

 

Conclusion 


Acknowledgements
 

This study was supported by the Government of Norway through the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) Future opportunities and challenges in Agricultural Learning (FOCAL) programme, and later through the Programme for Agricultural and Natural Resources Transformation for Improved Livelihood (PANTIL) to whom the authors are very grateful. Sokoine University of Agriculture is acknowledged with thanks for hosting and funding part of the project. We would like to express our thanks to pastoralists at Kambala for availing themselves and their animals for this study.

 

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Received 8 July 2008; Accepted 13 November 2008; Published 10 March 2009

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