Livestock Research for Rural Development 29 (8) 2017 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Effect of replacing complete grower diet with ground Prosopis juliflora pods on performance of improved indigenous chicken in Kenya

D M Wanjohi, A M King’ori1, A M Wachira2 and A Y Guliye1

Animal Health and Industry Training Institute, PO Box 20300-1, yahururu, Kenya
duncanwanjohi09@gmail.com
1 Department of Animal Sciences, Egerton University, PO Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya
2 Poultry Unit-Non-Ruminant Research Institute (NRI), Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, PO Box 1-20300 Naivasha, Kenya

Abstract

Ninety-six KALRO improved chicken (KIC) aged 8 weeks were used to study the effect of feeding diets incorporated with different levels of ground Prosopis juliflora pods (GPJP) on growth performance. A commercial grower feed, without GPJP, was used as the control diet. Experimental diets were formulated by replacing the commercial diet with GPJP at 0% (PJP-0), 10% (PJP-10), 20% (PJP-20) and 30 % (PJP-30). A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used with the four dietary treatments that were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric. Feed intake and live weight gains were monitored for eleven weeks and used to calculate feed conversion ratio (FCR). Two birds from each pen were slaughtered to measure different parts carcass weights.

There was reduced feed intake and live weight gain for chicken offered PJP-30 as compared to chicken offered all the other levels of GPJP. Pullets offered PJP-30 diet had higher FCR than pullets offered PJP-10, PJP-20 and PJP-30. In cockerels, PJP-20 had the lowest DCW. PJP-10 and PJP-20 had similar Eviscerated weight but lower than PJP-0 and higher than PJP30. Breast weight was similar inPJP-0 and PJP-20 but lower than in PJP-10 with PJP-30 having the lowest Breast weight. PJP-0 had similar Leg weight as PJP-20 but lower than PJP-10. The highest level of GPJP inclusion (PJP-30) had the lowest Leg weight. In pullets, increasing the levels of GPJP had similar effect on dressed cold weight, Eviscerated weight, Breast weight, Leg weight and Wing percentage apart from PJP-20 that had lower weights that PJP-0.

Diets with 20% and 30 % of GPJP were the least cost diets for pullets and cockerels respectively. Cockerels utilized higher levels of GPJP in the diet more efficiently than the pullets. Therefore, it is concluded that GPJP can be included at the level of 20% in the diets of both pullets and cockerels without affecting their performance at the least cost.

Key words: carcass weight, daily gain, feed conversion efficiency, feed intake


Introduction

The demand for poultry and their products in Kenya is on the increase (Bett et al 2012). However, poultry production is constrained by many factors among them feed quality and quantity (Kingori et al 2010). Studies by Chemjor, (1998), Birech, (2002) and Kingori, (2003) reported that nutrition, in terms of both quality and quantity, is a major factor limiting the attainment of full production potential of indigenous chicken (IC) in Kenya. This is caused by high cost and inadequacy of ingredients to formulate the feeds. A number of studies have been carried out using Prosopis juliflora pods. Such studies recommended up 20% GPJP in laying diets (Meseret et al 2011b) and 20% in broiler diets (Meseret et al 2012; Odero-Waitituh et al 2016). This study determined the performance of KIC offered diets with increasing levels of GPJP to determine the optimum inclusion level for the grower phase.


Materials and methods

Study site

An on-station feeding trial using KARLO improved chicken (KIC) was conducted at KALRO Non-Ruminant Institute at Naivasha. The station is 100 km west of Nairobi at an altitude of 1900 m above sea level and has a bimodal rainfall pattern with an annual mean of 620 mm. The average day and night temperatures are 26C and 8C respectively and a relative humidity range between 60 and 75 % (Herrero et al 2010).

Dietary treatments

Four dietary treatments consisting of a control with 0% GPJP and three other diets formulated by replacing commercial grower diet total diet with GPJP at 10%, 20% and 30 % as presented in Table 1.

Experimental design

A complete randomized design (CRD) was used with 24 growers per treatment (12 pullets and 12 cockerels). The diets were randomly allocated to the KIC. Free access to feed and clean water was allowed throughout the experimental period

All the 96 KIC growers were offered the respective treatments and daily feed intake (feed offered minus feed remains from 7am to 6pm) recorded. The refusals were weighed each morning before the fresh feed was offered. Weekly feed conversion ratio was calculated as the ratio of feed intake per bird to the body weight gain per bird (average daily feed conversion ratio per week). Average live weight gain for each experimental unit was represented by the average change in pen weight for a given period of time. Weight gain of the growers was monitored by weighing the birds weekly at 0900 hours (before morning) feeding from the10th to 20th week of age.

The birds were assigned to the four treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD). Each treatment had four pullets and four cockerels replicated three times

Carcass evaluation

On the 20th week, two birds per pen were randomly selected and fasted for 12 hours with free access to drinking water. They were then weighed and sacrificed and the carcass dissected into various cuts. Carcass measurements included pre-slaughter live weights, cold dressed weight, prime cuts (breast, back, legs (drumstick and thigh), wing, neck and shank) weights, giblets (gizzard, liver, and heart) weights and featherweight. The dressing percentage was calculated as a ratio of carcass weight to pre-slaughter live weight.

Cost of feeding

In the determination of cost of feeding, the following parameters were calculated: - total feed intake in kilograms, feed cost per kilograms in Kenya shillings (Ksh) and total live weight change in kilograms for the entire period of 70 days. These parameters were used to calculate feed cost per live weight change.

Chemical analyses

Feeds samples were dried and ground to pass through a 1mm screen using a Wiley mill. The samples were then analyzed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF) and ash while calcium and phosphorus were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using the methods of AOAC (1990). Gross energy was determined using a bomb calorimeter.

Statistical analyses

All data were analyzed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS, 2002) using General Linear Model of Analysis of Variance-GLM (ANOVA) to determine the difference between the treatment means at 5% significance level. Means differences were separated by Tukey’s test.


Results

Nutrient composition of the diets

The experimental diets formulated for IC and were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous, around 13.38MJ/Kg on average and 23% CP respectively (Table 1) with crude fiber increasing as the level of GPJP increased.

Table 1. Composition of the experimental diets

Ration composition

Treatments

PJP-0

PJP-10

PJP-20

PJP-30

GPJP

0.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

Maize

64.00

57.60

51.20

44.80

Fish meal

7.50

6.75

6.00

5.25

Soy bean

24.50

22.05

19.60

17.15

Vegetable oil

2.50

2.25

2.00

1.75

DCP

0.65

0.59

0.52

0.46

Iodized salt

0.50

0.45

0.40

0.35

Vitamin premix*

0.35

0.32

0.28

0.25

Total

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

Chemical composition

DM (%)

89.40

90.10

90.20

89.60

CP (% DM)

23.04

23.70

23.51

22.90

EE (% DM)

8.61

7.21

6.98

6.58

CF (% DM)

4.59

5.56

6.50

7.71

Ash (% DM)

7.80

8.22

8.35

8.36

NFE (% DM)

45.36

45.41

44.85

44.04

Ca (% DM)

1.00

0.98

1.03

1.01

P (% DM)

0.45

0.46

0.44

0.49

ME (MJ/Kg DM)

13.71

13.42

13.38

13.02

PJP-0 = diet containing 0% GPJP of the whole diet; PJP-10 = diet containing 10% GPJP of the whole diet; PJP-20 = diet containing 30% GPJP of the whole diet; PJP-30= diet containing 30% GPJP of the whole diet; GPJP = ground Prosopis juliflora pods; DCP = dicalcium phosphate; CP = crude protein; EE = ether extracts; CF = crude fibre; NFE = nitrogen free extracts; ME = metabolizable energy. *Vitamin premix to provide the following per kg of diet: Vitamin A, 10,000 IU; Vitamin D 3, 2000 IU, Vitamin E, 5 mg; Vitamin K, 2 mg; Riboflavin, 4.2 mg; Nicotinic acid, 20 mg; Vitamin B12, 0.01mg; Pantothenic acid, 5 mg; Folic acid, 0.5 mg; Choline, 3 mg; Mg, 56 mg; Fe, 20 mg; Cu, 10 mg; Zn, 50 mg; Co, 125 mg; Iodine, 0.08 mg.

Feed intake, daily gain and feed conversion ratio

Inclusion of GPJP in KIC had a negative effect on feed intake (Y = -1.65x 2 + 3.33x + 92.6, R2 = 0.99) in cockerels and (Y = -1.85x2 + 6.23x + 66.3, R2 = 0.98) in pullets and combined sexes (Table 2 and Figure 1). The same negative effects were also observed in daily weight gain (Y = -0.403x2 + 0.546x + 20.4, R 2 = 0.96) in cockerels and (Y = -0.463x2 + 1.12x + 12.1, R = 0.97) in pullets and combined sexes (Table 2 and Figure 2). Inclusion of GPJP in pullets and grouped KIC had positive effect on FCR (Y = 0.145x2 - 0.325x + 5.74, R2 = 0.9465) (Table 2, Figure 3).

Table 2. Productive performance of KIC

Parameters

 

 

Treatments

SEM

p

PJP-0

PJP-10

PJP-20

PJP-30

Average feed intake

(g/day)

P

C

E

70.9 a

94.2 a

82.3 a

70.5a

92.7 a

81.4a

69.1a

87.6a

79.1a

61.3b

79.5b

70.1b

1.37

1.92

1.14

0.003

0.045

0.005

Average daily gain

(g/day)

P

C

E

12.9a

20.7a

16.8 a

12.2a

19.4a

15.8 ab

11.7a

18.8a

15.2b

9.08b

15.9b

12.4c

1.18

1.25

0.82

0.016

0.036

0.009

FCR

(g feed/g weight gain)

P

C

E

5.51 b

4.57 a

4.99b

5.82b

4.78a

5.27b

5.92b

4.67a

5.32b

6.81a

4.99a

5.94a

0.16

0.14

0.11

0.043

0.067

0.005

FLW

(Kg/bird)

P

C

E

1.34a

1.81a

1.58a

1.31a

1.74a

1.53a b

1.31a

1.68a

1.51b

1.08 b

1.53b

1.29 c

43.5

75.3

41.8

0.004

0.024

0.037

LWC

(Kg/bird)

P

C

E

0.991a

1.59a

1.29a

0.943a

1.49a

1.22ab

0.918a

1.45a

1.17b

0.704b

1.23b

0.962c

27.2

36.4

24.9

0.045

0.034

0.005

abc means with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05) within a row; P = pullet; C = cockerel, E= both pullet and cockerel combined; PJP-0 = diet containing 0% GPJP of the whole diet; PJP-10 = diet containing 10% GPJP of the whole diet; PJP-20 = diet containing 30% GPJP of the whole diet; PJP-30= diet containing 30% GPJP of the whole diet; GPJP = ground Prosopis juliflora pods

Feed intake declined with increase in the proportion of prosopis pods in pullets, cockerels, and grouped chicken (Table 2, Figure 1). The same negative trend was observed in growth rate (Table 2, Figure 2) in cockerels, pullets and grouped birds and also in feed conversion efficiency in pullets and grouped KIC. However, increasing the proportion of prosopis pods did not affect feed conversion ratio in cockerels (Table 2, Figure 3).

Figure 1. Effect of varying levels of Prosopis pods on feed intake


Figure 2. Effect of varying levels of Prosopis pods on weight gain


Figure 3. Effect of varying levels of Prosopis pods on feed conversion ratio
Final live weight and live weight change

Final live weight and live weight change declined with increase in the proportion of prosopis pods in the diet. (Table 2, Figure 4).

Figure 4.  Live weight of KIC from 10 to 20 weeks old fed on graded levels of GPJP
Carcass and carcass weight evaluation

In cockerels, PJP-0 and PJP-30 had similar DCW which was higher than PJP-10. PJP-20 had the lowest DCW. Breast weight was similar inPJP-0 and PJP-20 but lower than in PJP-10 with PJP-30 having the lowest Breast weight as illustrated in Table 3.

As illustrated in same table, increasing the levels of GPJP had similar effect on dressed cold weight, Eviscerated weight, Breast weight, Leg weight and Wing percentage apart from PJP-20 that had lower weights that PJP-0 in pullets.

Table 3. Carcass performance of KIC receiving different levels of Prosopis Juliflora pods in their diets

KIC

Parameter

Treatments

SEM

p

PJP-0

PJP-10

PJP-20

PJP-30

Cockerel

PSW (Kg)

2.15

2.15

2.15

2.15

0.27

DCW (Kg)

1.92a

1.91b

1.89c

1.90b

5.44

0.016

DP (%)

89.1

88.6

88.1

88.3

0.27

EW (Kg)

1.82a

1.78b

1.78b

1.77c

6.67

0.005

EP (%)

84.4

82.9

82.9

82.6

0.33

BW (g)

322a

290b

312a

288c

5.39

0.037

BP (%)

14.9

13.5

14.5

13.3

0.25

LW (g)

523a

493b

508ab

489c

7.80

0.009

LP (%)

24.2

22.9

23.6

22.6

0.36

WP (%)

9.48

9.88

9.39

9.54

0.22

0.22

 

Pullet

PSW (Kg)

1.58

1.58

1.58

1.58

DCW (Kg)

1.401a

1.39ab

1.38b

1.39ab

9.61

0.005

DP (%)

88.6

88.5

87.8

87.9

0.59

EW (Kg)

1.31a

1.29ab

1.26b

1.29ab

14.5

0.033

EP (%)

82.6

81.7

80.0

82.3

0.90

BW (g)

247a

232ab

225c

260a

8.21

0.016

BP (%)

15.5

14.6

14.2

16.5

0.52

LW (g)

340a

335ab

318b

323b

5.70

0.002

LP (%)

21.4

21.1

20.1

20.4

0.36

WP (%)

9.46ab

9.98a

8.71b

9.70a

0.26

0.003

abc means for same sex with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05) within a row; PSW =pre-slaughter weight; DCW = dressed carcass weight; DP = dressing percentage; EW = eviscerated weight; EP = eviscerated percentage; BW = breast weight; BP = breast percentage; LW = leg weight; LP = leg percentage = WP = wing percentage; PJP-0 = diet containing 0% GPJP of the whole diet; PJP-10 = diet containing 10% GPJP of the whole diet; PJP-20 = diet containing 30% GPJP of the whole diet; PJP-30= diet containing 30% GPJP of the whole diet; GPJP = ground Prosopis juliflora pods

Cost of feeding

Inclusion of GPJP in KIC had a negative effect on feed cost per weight gain (y = -1.01x2 - 7.83x + 382, R = 0.95) in KIC (Table 4, Figure 5).

Feed cost per weight gain declined with increase in proportion of prosopis pods in the diet (Table 4, Figure 5). PJP-20 had the least cost diets in pullets. Feed cost per weight gain was least in cockerels offered PJP-30 which was also the least in all KIC.

Table 4. Cost of feeding ration for various levels of Prosopis juliflora pods

Parameters

Sex of chicken

Pullet

Cockerel

PJP-0

PJP-10

PJP-20

PJP-30

PJP-0

PJP-10

PJP-20

PJP-30

Total feed intake (kg/bird)

5.47

5.43

5.32

4.72

7.26

7.14

6.75

6.12

Feed cost/kg (Ksh)

67.81

62.74

57.65

52.59

67.81

62.74

57.65

52.59

Total feed cost (Ksh)

370.63

340.91

306.35

248.25

492.02

447.73

388.99

321.74

Feed cost/wt gain (Ksh)

372.83

364.27

341.16

355.05

309.43

300.22

268.29

261.97

Ksh = Kenya’s unit of currency; US$ 1.00 = Ksh 100; wt= weight; PJP-0 = diet containing 0% GPJP of the whole diet; PJP-10 = diet containing 10% GPJP of the whole diet; PJP-20 = diet containing 30% GPJP of the whole diet; PJP-30= diet containing 30% GPJP of the whole diet; GPJP = ground Prosopis juliflora pods



Figure 5.  Effect of feed cost on weight gain in KIC


Discussion

Various studies have been carried out using different levels of Prosopis juliflora pods. Meseret et al (2011a) reported that 30% inclusion of Prosopis juliflora pods reduced feed intake, and lowered body weight in the finisher phase while in starter phase it resulted to lower FLW as compared to lower levels of Prosopis juliflora pods. These results are similar to findings of this study where 30 % GPJP reduced the feed intake. This could be due to high CF, Meseret et al (2011a) and anti-nutritive factors that depresses feed intake (Shahidi, 1997) and also due to gut fill from consuming high amount of CF. The results are also in congruence with a study involving 20% of Prosopis juliflora pods in broiler rations (Odero-Waitituh, 2015). It can be inferred, therefore, that 20 % of Prosopis juliflora pods in KIC diets was also the optimal inclusion level with no further processing of GPJP to reduce the effects of anti-nutritive factors and CF content.

The results of this study are also in good congruence with the findings of Meseret et al 2011a; Yusuf et al 2008; Choudhary et al 2005 who reported lower growth rate at higher levels of GPJP in broiler diets. Prosopis juliflora pods contain factors such as condensed tannins and phenols (Annongu and Ter Meulen 2000) that negatively depresses digestion (AL-Mazooqi et al 2015) resulting in reduced ADG when fed at levels of 30% as reported in this study without further processing.

Results for pullet and combination of pullet and cockerels indicate that 30% level of GPJP resulted in high FCR which are similar to Meseret et al (2011a) findings but in cockerel, none of the rations had an effect on FCR. These results point out to the fact that cockerels have a better capacity to derive nutrients from Prosopis juliflora pods as compared to pullets and therefore resulting in better performance.

Carcass yield results by Meseret et al (2011a) indicated that there was no impact apart from 10% Prosopis juliflora pods inclusion that yielded heavier drumstick than the 30% inclusion. Carcass yield recorded in this study contradicted results by Abdullah et al (2010) and Meseret et al 2011a) who found no significant differences in dressing percentages, carcass weight and organ weight for different levels of Prosopis juliflora pods inclusion. Effect of GPJP on breast and leg weights in cockerels and eviscerated, breast and leg weights for pullets is similar to the trend observed in live weight and feed intake in this study. This indicates that considering biological performance and cost of feeding (Table 4, Figure 5), 20 % GPJP inclusion gave the best option also in carcass yield of the primal cuts.

The cost of feeding results agreed with what Meseret et al (2011a) reported with broilers where it was less costly to feed Prosopis juliflora pods based diets at 20% GPJP inclusion level without affecting the biological performance. The results of the cost of feeding indicate that PJP-30 and PJP-20 had apparently lower cost per weight gain mass compared to other treatments in cockerels and pullets respectively. However, dissimilar results were reported by Yusuf et al (2016) who reported 5% as the best level of prosopis pulp replacing maize. The least feed cost per weight gain in cockerels receiving PPJ-30 indicates cockerels have lower feeding costs compared to pullets.


Conclusion


Acknowledgement

The authors would like to sincerely thank Poultry unit-Non ruminant research unit and Egerton University for financial, input, laboratory services and staff throughout the research period and also, Dr. Kiplangat Ngeno for assistance in data analysis.


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Received 17 March 2017; Accepted 15 May 2017; Published 1 August 2017

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