Livestock Research for Rural Development 29 (7) 2017 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Antihelminthic and anticoccidial effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe fortified diets fed to Yankasa rams

S A Adeniji, O A Adediran1, T O Ososanya and E C Uwalaka1

Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan
tososanya85@gmail.com
1 Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan

Abstract

Parasitic burden results in sub-optimal ruminant livestock production. Synthetic coccidiostats and antihelminthes have been reported to induce resistance and leave residues in the carcass of animals with serious health implications. Although ginger rhizome is a potential alternative to coccidiostats and antihelminthes, its use has not been properly documented. In this study, ginger rhizome was processed into powder and added to a concentrate diet at 0g/kg (G1), 5g/kg (G2), 10g/kg (G3), 15g/kg (G4) and 20g/kg (G5). In a completely randomized design, twenty five pubertal Yankasa rams were allotted to the five dietary treatments. The rams were allowed to graze inside infested pastures for 50days to acquire helminthes and coccidia naturally. At day 51, the rams were confine in individual pens and fed experimental diets for 28days. Faecal samples (5g) were collected from rams for Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT, %)) and Coccidia Oocyst Reduction Test (CORT, %) on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics and ANOVA α0.05.

Results obtained showed that on day 28, the FECRT (%) was higher in G2 (100), G3 (100), G4(100) and G5(100) than G1 (7.43) while the CORT (%) was higher in G2 (100), G3 (100), G4 (98.83) and G5 (100) than G1 (22.60). The helminthes ova recovered from faecal examination using floatation techniques were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp, Oesophagostomum spp, Strongyloides,and Moniezia; while Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Moniezia and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae were identified on faecal culture. The result revealed that crude ginger rhizome is a potential alternative anti-helminth and anti-coccidia for resource poor farmers as it grossly reduced helminth and coccidia load in the rams.

Keywords: anthelminth, coccidia, oocyst, pubertal


Introduction

The use of herbs and herbal extracts has gained tremendous attention over the past decades. A number of ethno-biological inventions have yielded results in treating bacterial infections and intestinal parasites in plants and animals. Research findings have listed many plants as possessing medicinal properties (Nundkumar and Ojewole 2002; Athanasiadou and Kyriazakis 2004; Fajimi and Taiwo 2005; Githiori et al 2006; Adedapo et al 2007; Adediran et al 2014, Adediran and Uwalaka 2015). The use of seeds, stems, leaves and roots of some plants such as turmeric, mint, onion and garlic have been exploited to treat animals that suffer from gastro-intestinal parasitism. Guarrera (1999) reported that the leaves, dried flowers and oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides, a shrub that originated from Central America and has been distributed around the world, have all been used as anthelmintics since the early 1900s.

There are two principal reasons behind the changing trend in the use synthetic drugs in treating animals. The first is to combat the development of microbial resistance to antibiotic antihelmintic drugs in animals. The second is a response to consumer pressure to eliminate the use of all non-plant xenobiotic agents from the diet of animals. Hence, the only alternative means of treating livestock diseases available to the rural farmer is the use of phyto-medicines. Reports have shown that about 80% of the world population relies solely on medicinal plants for the treatment of diseases (Dwivdedi 1999). Some ethno veterinary practices have been reported in the northern part of Nigeria by some authors (Abdu et al 2000; Alawa et al 2003, Alawa et al 2010).

Many plants and plant parts have been shown to exhibit antibiotic, antimicrobial and anti-parasitic properties. Anosa and Okoro (2011) reported anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract ofMusa paradisica root in chickens while Adedapo et al 2007; Ademola and Eloff 2011; Adediran and Uwalaka 2015 reported anthelminthic activity of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) against various helminths in ruminants.

Gastro-intestinal (GI) nematodes resistance to anthelmintic treatments causes poor productivity in small ruminants (Van Wyk et al 1997; Waller 1999) while coccidiosis is a common and damaging illness of sheep, goats, and cattle particularly young lambs, kids, and calves. It is a disease that causes young animals to be "poor doers," sometimes permanently (Coffey 2014). A strategic anthelmintic treatment increases productivity and financial profitability (Nwafor 2004). Resource-poor farmers find purchasing of synthetic anthelmintics too expensive in developing world (Hammond et al 1997). Hence, the development of alternatives for helminth and coccidia control which are less reliant on chemotherapeutics is considered the way forward. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the effects of ginger rhizome on the helminth and coccidia burden in Yankasa rams.


Materials and methods

The study was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan located on latitude 7o271N and longitude 3 o451E, at an altitude of 200m above sea level within the derived savannah zone of Nigeria. A total of 25 pubertal Yankasa rams weighing 11-13kg were used for this experiment. Procedures for the egg counts were carried out at the Veterinary Parasitology Laboratory, University of Ibadan.

Experimental diets

Sundried ginger rhizome (yellow variety, UG 1) was milled and mixed thoroughly with a concentrate diet (table 1) at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20g/kg respectively with each inclusion level serving as experimental treatment.

Experimental layout

Treatment 1: Concentrate + 0 g/kg ginger root = T1

Treatment 2: Concentrate + 5.0 g/kg ginger root = T2

Treatment 3: Concentrate + 10.0 g/kg ginger root = T3

Treatment 4: Concentrate + 15.0 g/kg ginger root = T4

Treatment 5: Concentrate + 20.0 g/kg ginger root = T5

Table 1. Gross Composition of experimental diet without ginger inclusion

Ingredient

%

Dry Cassava Peel

35

Brewers Dry Grain

40

Palm kernel cake

12

Rice husk

8

Salt

3

Limestone

2

Calculated Crude Protein

11.47

Experimental animals

A total of 25 ram-lambs of ages between 28 to 32 weeks, weighing 14-17kg were used for this experiment. The rams were left to free-graze for over fifteen weeks to allow for suitable level of infection having individual egg counts which is above 150 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG). The rams were thereafter randomly allocated based on their ranking of faecal egg counts into control and treatment groups. Different groups were allocated to each of the ginger fortified concentrate feed for the tests. A control (untreated) group was created to allow for monitoring of natural changes in egg counts during the test period.

Treatments - Dosing regimen

The test samples were thoroughly mixed with the concentrate diet and introduced to the rams as a modification for dosing. The dosing regimen of ginger was at inclusion of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20g/kg respectively in the concentrate feed .

Sampling procedures

For pre-screening of animals for sufficient egg counts, a minimum of 5g (10 to 15 pellets) of faeces was collected from each animal directly from the rectum. The same procedure was followed at the post-treatment sampling. Samples were placed in individually sealed containers and returned rapidly to the laboratory for egg count. The post-treatment collection of faecal samples was reviewed to 28 days.

Faecal Egg and Cyst Count

Faecal samples collected per rectum from all rams were subjected to the faecal egg and cyst counts using the McMaster method as described by Thienpont et al., (1979). The faecal culture, floatation technique of faecal examination was carried out as described by Khin Khin et al., (2007). Faecal egg counts, oocyst counts and helminth ova and larvae were recorded.

Processing of samples

The modified McMaster method was used for feacal egg count, where 3grams of faeces was weighed into a suitable container, while 42 ml of water was added and soaked for a few minutes to 1 h, until the faeces became soft. They were thereafter homogenised using a laboratory stirrer and shaken until all the pellets have been broken up. Afterward it was poured through a 100 mesh (0.15 mm aperture), 20 cm diameter sieve into a bowl.

The liquid was swirled and 15 ml was poured into a 17 ml centrifuge tube. It was centrifuged for 2 min at about 300 g (approximately 1500 rev/min on a bench-top centrifuge). Thereafter, the supernatant was gently poured or sucked off. The tube is agitated to loosen the sediment. Suitable flotation fluid was added to give the same volume as before (15 ml). The tube was inverted five or six times. A sample was immediately withdrawn with a Pasteur pipette to fill the chamber of a McMaster slide. The process of inversion was done again to fill the second chamber. At x10 magnification, all the eggs were counted under the two ruled grids (total volume 0.3 ml). Multiply the number of eggs by 50 to give the EPG in the faecal sample. For greater sensitivity all the eggs in each chamber was counted (total volume 1 ml and multiply by 15 to give the EPG).

Analysis and interpretation of data

The percentage reduction, FECR % i.e. Percentage efficacy was calculated using the formula modified from that described by Arundel (1985) as follows:

% Efficacy = N – n X 100 N

Where: N = Mean number of helminth egg or cyst in control (untreated) animals.

Resistance is considered to be present if:

(i) The percentage reduction in egg counts is less than 95 percent and

(ii) The 95 percent confidence level is less than 90 percent.

If only one of the two criteria is met, resistance is suspected.

Table 2. Effect of ginger powder fortification on the percent reduction of helminth eggs in Yankasa rams (%)

Days

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

7

4.78b4.33

94.13a5.42

80.97a21.20

86.57a10.11

80.90a12.28

14

4.81b4.33

86.73a9.59

84.70a11.87

81.03a14.43

58.03a40.14

21

7.88b4.15

87.93a7.85

93.20a10.51

90.10a17.15

92.50a9.01

28

7.43b1.98

100.00a0.00

100.00a0.00

99.20a8.31

100.00a0.00

a,b: means in the same row with different superscripts are significantly different (P<0.05)
T1 = Concentrate + 0g/Kg Ginger; T2= Concentrate + 5g/Kg Ginger; T3= Concentrate + 10g/Kg Ginger;
T4= Concentrate + 15g/Kg Ginger; T5= Concentrate + 20g/Kg Ginger



Photo 1. Egg of helminthes as seen under the microscope (Mag. x40)


Photo 2. The cultured larvae as seen under the microscope (Magnification x 40)


Results and discussion

Effect of ginger powder supplementation on the percent reduction of helminth eggs in Yankasa rams

This study describes the anthelmintic and anticoccidia activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (family Zingiberaceae) rhizome which is normally used in traditional ethno veterinary medicine. The result showed that feeding pubertal Yankasa rams with crude powder of ginger is generally effective against helminthes and coccidia. From Table 2, the percent faecal egg count reduction (%FECR) for the control ranged between 4.78 and 7.88% throughout the experimental period, showing that helminth egg count did not reduce significantly when ginger was not included in the diet. However, at the lowest level of ginger inclusion, (5g/kg), there was a high percent reduction in egg count (94.13, 86.73, 87.93 and 100.00% at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 respectively). The other ginger inclusion rates elicited similar egg count reduction in Yankasa rams. This result is similar to that obtained by Iqbal et al., (2006) who observed a dose and time-dependent anthelmintic effect in infested sheep when crude aqueous extracts and crude powder of dried ginger were administered. The result from this study showed that crude ginger powder was more effective against helminthes than standard Levamisole (7.5 mg/kg) which exhibited 99.2% reduction in EPG as reported by Iqbal et al (2006). Its effectiveness is comparable to that of Vernonia amygdalina which cleared helminthes eggs and coccidia cysts in goats with an efficiency of 100% and 99.4% respectively (Adediran et al 2014).

The EPG in faeces of the treated groups before administration of ginger ranged from 55 to 285 while that of the control group ranged between 224 and 426. The animals in treated groups recorded 0 – 6 EPG post administration while the control group exhibited increased EPG. The helminthes ova recovered from faecal examination using floatation techniques were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp, Oesophagostomum spp, Strongyloides, and Moniezia. However, on faecal culture,Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp, Nematodirus spp, Moniezia and Oesophagostomum spp . larvae were identified. The percentage efficacy of ginger powder against helminthes was 100%. This shows that ginger possesses in vivo anthelmintic activity in rams and its use against helminthes infestation is justified.

Effect of ginger supplementation on the control of coccidia in Yankasa rams

Table 3 shows the effectiveness of ginger inclusion on the coccidia reduction level. Ginger powder effectively reduced coccidia count in the rams fed. The percentage level of reduction of oocyst is highly significant between the unfortified and the ginger fortified groups. The coccidia cyst count varied between 33 and 413 pre-treatment in treated and control groups. There are no significant differences in the percent reduction in the level of oocyst in the rams fed fortified diet, however there is increases in the efficacy of ginger for all the treated group as the number of days increased, thus an 100% efficacy was observed in all the fortified group on day 28 as against the control group where there is increase in the number of oocyst over the period of the experiment.

Table 3. Effect of ginger supplementation on the percent (%) reduction of coccidia in Yankasa rams over a period of 28days

Days

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

SEM

7

16.32b

66.53a

52.33a

53.53a

57.15a

9.65

14

18.72b

72.97a

72.00a

67.03a

58.87a

8.73

21

18.34b

86.10a

87.57a

82.43a

76.20a

5.83

28

22.60b

100.00a

100.00a

98.83a

98.37a

4.43

a,b, means in the same row with different superscripts are significantly different (P<0.05).

On day 28 of the study, the coccidial count was zero, 0, except in one animal that had oocyst count of 21 from 114 post treatment as observed in table 5. However, there was increase in the coccidian count in the control group except in ram where the count decreased from 413 to 249. In the same vein, the percentage efficacy of ginger as a coccidiostat was 100% on day 28 as shown in table 3.

Table 4. Egg count (egg per gram of faeces) of the treated and control groups pre and post administration of ginger powder.

Treatments

Class

Day 0

Day 3

Day 7

Day 14

Day 21

Day 28

Control group

T1

Strongyloides

93

1

0

62

60

55

Strongyles

131

120

0

252

248

240

T1

Strongyloides

2

33

35

33

Strongyles

342

341

342

340

303

315

T1

Strongyloides

15

22

17

19

20

19

Strongyles

405

407

403

410

405

401

Monieza

6

8

5

11

5

0

Treated group

T2

Strongyloides

71

0

1

11

2

0

Strongyles

214

11

3

41

7

0

T2

Strongyloides

9

5

4

0

Strongyles

201

27

24

37

13

0

T2

Strongyloides

11

2

6

0

Strongyles

94

15

4

1

0

0

T3

Strongyloides

17

6

0

0

Strongyles

153

98

66

41

1

0

T3

Strongyloides

0

0

Strongyles

293

62

32

9

2

0

T3

Strongyloides

0

0

0

4

2

0

Strongyles

131

9

4

21

18

2

T4

Strongyloides

13

2

0

0

0

0

Strongyles

41

7

0

4

2

0

Monieza

2

0

0

0

0

T4

Strongyle

130

34

14

15

7

0

Monieza

2

27

19

0

0

0

T4

Strongyloides

5

0

0

0

0

0

Strongyles

118

87

29

42

26

6

Nematodirus fillus

5

1

0

0

0

0

Monieza

3

0

1

0

0

0

T5

Strongyloides

5

9

2

0

0

Strongyles

3

21

15

7

0

0

T5

Strongyloides

13

6

9

4

0

Strongyles

42

63

13

37

4

0

T5

Strongyloides

0

0

0

0

0

0

Strongyles

171

37

11

39

3

0



Table 5. Coccidia count in treated and control groups pre and post administration of ginger powder.

Treatments

Day 0

Day 3

Day7

Day 14

Day21

Day 28

Control group

T1

413

311

297

244

256

249

T1

114

210

208

201

211

232

T1

289

292

301

309

321

319

Treated Group

T2

314

111

110

109

53

-

T2

111

32

30

29

13

-

T2

213

84

53

31

28

-

T3

411

117

93

73

51

-

T3

93

61

28

13

3

-

T3

23

21

15

12

5

-

T4

101

71

52

34

20

-

T4

91

31

24

1

15

-

T4

114

81

66

53

31

21

T5

33

11

9

8

6

-

T5

63

39

34

27

7

-

T5

34

17

16

15

9

-


Conclusion


References

Adedapo A A, Otesile  A T and Soetan K O 2007 Assessment of the Anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Vernonia amygdalina. Pharmaceutical Biology, v.45, n7, p.564-568.

Adediran O A, Uwalaka E C and Kolapo T U 2014 Antihelminthic and Anticoccidial Effects of Vernonia Amygdalina in Goats. Journal of Veterinary Advances 2014, v4, n7, p 610-615.

Adediran O A and Uwalaka E C 2015 Effectiveness Evaluation of Levamisole, Albendazole, Ivermectin and Vernonia amygdalina in West African Dwarf Goats. Journal of Parasitology Research. 5 pages.http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/706824.

Alawa C B I, Adamu A M, Gefu J O, Ajanusi O J, Abdu P A and Chiezey N P 2003 In vitro screening of two Nigerian medicinal plants (Vernonia amygdalina and Annona senegalensis) for anthelmintic activity. Journal of Veterinary Parasitolology, v.113, p.73-81.

Alawa C B I, Adamu A M, Gefu J O, Ajanusi O J, Abdu P A and Chiezey N P 2010 In vivo efficacy of Vernonia amygdalina (compositae) against natural helminth infection in Bunaji (Bos indicus) calves. Pakistan Veterinary Journal v.30, n.4, p.215-218. http://www.pvj.com.pk/pdf-files/30_4/215-218.pdf.

Athanasiadou S and Kyriazakis I 2004 Plant secondary metabolites: antiparasitic effects and their role in ruminant production systems. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society n.63, p.631–639.

Thienpoint D 1979 Diagnosing Helminthiasis through Coprological Examination, Janssen Research Foundation, Beerse, Belgium. P.34-43.

Khin-khin L 2007 Prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Giardia, and other gastrointestinal parasites of dairy calves in Mandalay, Myannar. MPh Thesis. Chuang mai university and Frere Universiat Berlin.

Iqbal Z, Akthar M, Khan M N and Riaz M 1999 Prevalence and economic significance of haemonchosis in sheep and goats slaughtered at Faisalabad abattoir. Pakistan Journal of. Agricultural Science. V.30, p.51-53.

Githiori J B, Athanasiadou S and Thamsborg S M 2006 Use of plants in novel approaches for control of gastrointestinal helminths in livestock with emphasis on small ruminants. Veterinary Parasitology v.139, p.308–320.

Guarrera P M 1999 Traditional antihelmintic, antiparasitic and repellent uses of plants in Central Italy. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v68, p.183–192.

Fajimi A K and Taiwo A A 2005 Herbal remedies in animal parasitic diseases in Nigeria: a review. African Journal of Biotechnology v.4, p.303–307


Received 19 February 2017; Accepted 7 April 2017; Published 2 July 2017

Go to top