Livestock Research for Rural Development 29 (10) 2017 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Forage production in saline soil treated with organic fertilizer used as feed for growing goats

F Kusmiyati, E D Purbajanti, Surahmanto and Sumarsono

Diponegoro University, Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Campus Drh. Soejono Koesoemowardojo, Tembalang - Semarang, 50275 Indonesia
fkusmiyati@yahoo.co.id

Abstract

The research was conducted (i) to evaluate the effect of application of organic fertilizer in saline soil on forage production of Panicum maximum and Sesbania grandiflora; and (ii) to evaluate the use  of Panicum maximum and Sesbania grandiflora foliage for growing goats. The study was conducted during the dry season (June – October 2016) in saline soil (EC = 4.1 dS/m) in Kaliori sub-district area, Rembang Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Experiment 1 was to measure production of P. maximum and S. grandiflora at different dosages of organic fertilizer ( 0, 10 tonnes/ha and 20 tonnes/ha) planted solely or inter-planted. Experiment 2 was the use of the forages for growing goats: native grass and Leucaena leucocephala (80 % : 20%) and P. maximum and S. grandiflora (80% : 20% and 60% : 40%).

Organic fertilizer (cow dung) application on saline soil increased dry matter production of P. maximum and S. grandiflora planted solely or inter-planted. There were increases in DM intake of 60%, in live weight gain of 100%, and improvements in DM feed conversion of 23%, for combinations of  P. maximum : S. grandiflora (80 : 20) and (60 : 40) compared with Native grass : L. leucocephala (80 : 20).

Key words: cow dung, DM intake, FCR, live weight gain, Panicum maximum, Sesbania grandiflora


Introduction

One of the major problems in Indonesia is soil salinity. Saline soil is identified by excess salt, especially sodium chloride (NaCl), on the soil and in the root zone (Abrol et al 1988). Sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) ions result when ionized by water. The excessive amounts of NaCl causes both ionic (chemical) and osmotic stress which limits growth and production of crops (Xiong et al 2002). Osmotic stress will reduce the ability of plants to take up water causing drought stress. The effect of drought stress on the plant is to reduce chlorophyll content, number of tillers, stover yield and grain yield of rice (Purbajanti et al 2017). The widespread areas of saline soil in Indonesia can not be used as agricultural land.

Many attempts are being made to make these saline soils productive again by utilizing salt-tolerant plants, micro climate modification, using chemical agents and organic matter. Kusmiyati et al (2012) reported that Panicum maximum was the most tolerant grass compared to Setaria sphacelata, Euchlaena mexicana, Brachiaria brizantha and Cynodon plectostachyus. Among legume forages, Sesbania  grandiflora produced high biomass on moderately saline soil (Qadir et al 2008). Kusmiyati et al (2016) reported that micro climate modification by using mulch to reduce evaporation from the soil surface will help to control soil salinity in the root zone. Application of 3 – 6 tonnes/ha rice straw mulch in highly saline soil (EC 8.7 dS/m) increased forage production and feed quality of P. maximum and S. grandiflora. Gypsum and organic matter as chemical and phytoremediation procedures have been implemented worldwide (Sharma and Minhas 2005). The aplication of organic matter improves physical, chemical and biological properties of saline soil (Diacono and Montemurro 2015). Organic fertilizer as source of organic matter and nutrients for soil and plants is important for sustainable land use and crop productivity on saline soil. Purbajanti et al (2016) reported manure as organic fertilizer (5 tonnes/ha) increased chlorophyll content, plant height, crop growth rate, forage yield, dry matter yield and dry matter content of Brachiaria brizantha.

Saline soil in Indonesia is mostly located along the coast. Farmers in this location usually have growing goats. Feed is from native grasses such as Axonopus compressus, Cyperus rotundus and Cynodon dactylon. Native grasses are fodders that grow wild and comprised of a diverse mix of grasses that grow naturally. These grasses can grow in all kinds of soil and are easy to find on the edge of the road. The production is quite low as well as nutritional quality.

The objectives of the present study were: (i) to evaluate the effect of organic fertilizer in saline soil on forage production of Panicum maximum and Sesbania grandiflora; and (ii) to evaluate the use of  Panicum maximum and Sesbania grandiflora as feed for growing goats.


Materials and Methods

Study area

This study was conducted during the dry season (June – October 2016) on saline soil in the Kaliori sub-district area, Rembang Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Rembang regency is located on the northeast coast of Central Java Province where annual rainfall is 1140 mm/year. The soil type is alluvial with silt loam texture. Organic C, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity were 1.08%, 0.13% and 12.0 C-mol/kg. Soil pH was 7.8 and the electrical conductivity (EC) was 4.1 dS/m. According to saline soil classification by Abrol et al (1988), saline soil in the area is classified as moderately saline.

Experiment 1 : Production of forage crops
Design and treatments

The design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three blocks. The experimental treatments were P. maximum and S. grandiflora planted solely or inter-planted, with different dosages of organic fertilizer (0, 10 and 20 tonnes/ha). Organic fertilizer was manure from cow dung. There were 27 plots, the size of each plot was 6 x 7m.

As sole crop P. maximum or S. grandiflora was planted at 100x75 cm. In inter-planted crop, P. maximum was planted at 100x75cm and S. grandiflora was planted between P. maximum rows. These two forage crops were planted at the same time. The planting materials were tillers for P. maximum and seed for S. grandiflora. Recommended levels of nitrogen (60 kg N/ha/cutting), phosporus (150 kg P2O5/ha) and potassium (100 kg K2O/ha) were applied using urea, SP-36 and potassium chloride (KCl), respectively. The first cut of P. maximum was done 4 weeks after planting. Growth and production of grass were not recorded during the first cut. The second cut of grass was done four weeks after the first cut and the third cut was done five weeks after the second cut. S. grandiflora was cut at 13 weeks after planting or at the same time with the third cut of grass. P. maximum and S. grandiflora were cut at 10 and 30 cm above soil, respectively. One hundred grams of fresh forage was dried at 105oC until the weight of sample was constant to measure dry matter percentage

Statistical analysis

Analysis of data of dry matter (DM) production was done using analysis of variance, followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) to compare the difference between treatments according to Steel and Torrie (1991).

Experiment 2 : Forage for growing goats
Experimental animals, treatments and design

Nine growing male goats (mean live weight 16,1 + 1,9 kg) were hired from small-holder goat owners in the area for feeding trials. The goats were kept in individual pens and randomly allocated into 3 groups based on completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 treatments and 3 replications. The feeding treatments were:

NG-LL: Native grass and Leucaena leucocephala (80 % : 20%)

PM-SG (80-20): Panicum maximum and S. grandiflora (80% : 20%)

PM-SG (60-40): P. maximum and S. grandiflora (60% : 40%)

Feeding and management

P. maximum and S. grandiflora were harvested daily from the saline soil in experiment 1, while native grass and Leucaena leucocephala were harvested from the land near experiment 1. The freshly chopped forages were given daily at 08:00 and 16:00 at 5% of goat body weight (DM basis). Experimental periods were 77 days; the first 7 days for adaptation of the goats. The goats were weighed every week. During the feeding trials, refusals were collected once daily and weighed. The parameters observed were dry matter (DM) intake, growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR).

Statistical analysis

Data were analysed by ANOVA, followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) to compare the differences between treatments according to Steel and Torrie (1991).


Results and Discussion

Experiment 1 : Production of forage crops

Figures 1 and 2 compare the dry matter yields of P. maximum at second and third cutting, when planted solely as well as when inter-planted with S. grandiflora with different dosages of organic fertilizer.

Figure 1. Dry matter yield of P. maximum at second cutting when planted solely and
when inter-planted with S. grandiflora at different dosages of organic fertilizer


Figure 2. Dry matter yield of P. maximum at third cutting when planted solely and
when inter-planted with S. grandiflora at different dosages of organic fertilizer

Aplication of organic fertilizer on saline soil increased dry matter yield of P. maximum at second and third cutting. There were no differences between application  of 10 tonnes/ha and 20 tonnes/ha of organic fertilizer on dry matter yield of P. maximum. Dry matter yield of P. maximum when planted solely and when inter-planted with S. grandiflora at the same dosage of organic fertilizer did not differ (Table 1).

Table 1. Dry matter yield (kg/ha) of P. maximum when planted solely and when inter-planted with S. grandiflora at different dosage of organic fertilizer at second cutting and third cutting 

Organic fertilizer

Second cutting

Third cutting

0 tonnes/ha

Planted solely

420b

2490c

Interplanted

450b

1540c

10 tonnes/ha

Planted solely

1050ab

7150ab

Interplanted

960 ab

6130b 

20 tonnes/ha

Planted solely

1170a

8180ab

Interplanted

1550a

8890a

A similar trend was also observed for the dry matter yield of S. grandiflora at first cutting (Table 2). No organic fertilizer decreased dry matter yield of S. grandiflora when planted solely and when interplanted with P. maximum. Dry matter yields of S. grandiflora at application  of 10 tonnes/ha and 20 tonnes/ha of organic fertilizer were not different. There were no differences in yield of S. grandiflora when planted solely and when interplanted with P. maximum with the same dosage of organic fertilizer.

Table 2. Dry matter yield (kg /ha) of S. grandiflora when planted solely and when inter-planted with P.maximum at different dosage of organic fertilizer at first cutting

Organic fertilizer

First cutting

0 tonnes/ha

Planted solely

973b

Interplanted

1080b

10 tonnes/ha

Planted solely

2150

Interplanted

2086

20 tonnes/ha

Planted solely

2380

Interplanted

2590a

The positive effect of organic fertilizer on saline soil was obvious as the dry matter yields of P. maximum and S. grandiflora were enhanced both planted solely and inter-planted.

Organic fertilizer as soil amendment has several beneficial effects on saline soils such as slow release of nutrients, and soil biological and physical properties improvement (Diacono and Montemurro 2015). Organic amendments significantly reduced the salt content and improved the content of available N, P and K (Wang et al 2014). Potassium (K+) is important to maintain plant turgor pressure under salinity stress. One of  the characteristics of saline soil is low organic matter. C and N mineralization pattern to salinity stress depended on the type of animal manure incorporate to the soil such as cow dung, poultry manure and goat manure (Walpola and Arunakumara 2010) . Organic matter increased soil aggregates stability through the bonding or adhesion properties of waste products of bacteria and fungal and/or bacteria hyphae (Diacono and Montemurro 2015). Soil porosity, water infiltration and water holding capacity of soil are improved as a consequence of soil aggregate stability.

Experiment 2 : The use of Panicum and Sesbania forage for growing goats

S. grandiflora had the highest content of crude protein and lowest content of crude fibre (Table 3). P. maximum had higher content of CP and lower content of CF compared to native grass. L. leucocephala had lower content of CP and higher content of CF compared to S. grandiflora.

Table 3. Chemical composition of the experimental feeds

DM

CP

CF

Ash

g/kg

g/kg DM

P. maximum

277

118

297

117

S. grandiflora

225

214

156

69

L. leucocephala

290

193

191

77

Native grass

210

44

305

130

Total DM intake was greatest for P. maximum : S. grandiflora (80 : 20) followed by treatments of P. maximum : S. grandiflora (60 : 40) with the lowest values on treatment of native grass : L. leucocephala (Table 4).  Crude protein intake was greatest for treatments of P. maximum : S. grandiflora (60 : 40). The lowest CP intake was with treatment of native grass : L. leucocephala. The DM intake of P. maximum supplemented with S. grandiflora was increased as compared with native grass : L. leucocephala. P. maximum had higher palatability than native grass. Ash and Petaia (1992) reported S. grandiflora to be  highly palatable and well digested by goats when fed as a major part of the diet.

Table 4. Mean values for feed intake, live weight gain and feed conversion for goats with different feeding treatments

NG-LL (80-20)

PM-SG (80-20)

PM-SG (60-40)

p

DMI, g/day

P. maximum

-

757

558

S. grandiflora

-

127

255

Natve grass

450

-

-

L. leucocephala

90

-

-

Total

540 b

884 a

813a

0.014

DMI, % of LW

3.59b

5.31 a

4.98

0.0003

CP, % DMI

5.04c

13.2b

14.8

< 0.0001

Initial LW, kg

15.2

16.7

16.3

Final LW, kg

17.8

21.8

21.8

LW gain, g/day

38.1b

73.8a

78.6

0.0006

DM conversion

14.3a

11.9ab

10.3b

0.0425

Live weight gains were similar for the different ratios of P. maximum : S. grandiflora (60 : 40 and 80: 20) and much better than for native grass : L. leucocephala  (Figure 3). The high nutritional value for goats of Sesbania grandiflora has been documented in Vietnam when given as the sole feed (Nhan et al 1998) or as a supplement to sweet potato vines (Vo Lam and Inger Ledin 2004).

Figure 3. Live weight gain of goats fed grasses and tree legume forages


Conclusions


Acknowledgement

The authors would like to express gratitude to the Directorate General of Research and Community Service, Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education through Research and Community Service Institute - Diponegoro University, for funding this research.


References

Abrol I P, Yadav J S V and Massaud F I 1988 Salt-Affected Soil and Their Management. FAO, Rome.

Ash A and Petaia L 1992 Nutritional value of Sesbania grandiflora leaves for monogastrics and ruminants. Tropical Agriculture, 69 (3), 223-228.

Diacono M and Montemurro F 2015 Effectiveness of organic wastes as fertilizers and amendments in salt-affected soils. Agriculture 5(2), 221-230 file:///C:/Users/rc/Downloads/agriculture-05-00221%20(1).pdf

Kusmiyati F, Sumarsono, Karno and Pangestu E 2012 Mineral concentration of forage grasses at different salinity levels of soil. Proceedings The Second International Seminar on Animal Industry : Empowering Local Resources for Sustainable Animal Production in Adapting to Climate Change (Chief Editors : D.A. Astuti), Jakarta, Indonesia, 5-6 July 2012 http://fapet.ipb.ac.id/~isai/pdf/Proceeding_of_2nd_ISAI_2012.pdf

Kusmiyati F, Sumarsono, Karno and Pangestu E 2016 Influence of Rice Straw Mulch on Saline Soil: Forage Production, Feed Quality and Feed Intake by Sheep. Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences 22(1), 42 - 51. http://www.issaas.org/journal/v22/01/journal-issaas-v22n1-04-kusmiyati_et_al.pdf

Nhan N T H 1998: Utilization of some forages as a protein source for growing goats by smallholder farmers. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 10, Article #23. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd10/3/nhan2.htm

Purbajanti E D, Kusmiyati F, Slamet W and Adinurani P G 2016 Chlorophyll, crop growth rate and forage yield of Brachiaria ( Brachiaria brizantha Stapf) as the result of goat manure in various nitrogen dosage. Advances of Science and Technology for Society AIP Conf. Proc. 1755, 130013-1–130013-4; doi: 10.1063/1.4958557 Published by AIP Publishing. 978-0-7354-1413-6 (Editors : Tri Rini Nuringtyas, Roto Roto, Adhika Widyaparga, Muslim Mahardika, Ahmad Kusumaadmaja and Nur Hadi), Yogjakarta, Indonesia, 11 – 13 November 2015. http://aip.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/1.4958557

Purbajanti E D, Kusmiyati F and Fuskhah E 2017 Growth, yield, and physiological characters of three types of Indonesian rice under limited water supply. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 16 (2), 101-108. http://scialert.net/qredirect.php?doi=ajps.2017.101.108&linkid=pdf

Qadir M, Tubeileh A, Akhtar J, Larbi A, Minhas P S and Khan M A 2008 Productivity enhancement of salt-affected environments through crop diversification. Land Degradation Development, 19 : 429 – 453. https://www.slideshare.net/P7Y/k3c485

Sharma B R and Minhas P S 2005 Strategic for managing saline/alkali water for sustainable agricultural production in South Asia. Agricultural Water Management 78 : 136 - 151

Steel R G D and Torrie J H 1991 Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw Hill Inc.

Vo Lam and Inger Ledin 2004 Effect of feeding different proportions of sweet potato vines ( Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) and Sesbania grandiflora foliage in the diet on feed intake and growth of goats. Livestock Research for Rural Development , Volume 16, Article #77, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd16/10/lam16077.htm

Walpola B C and Arunakumara K K I U 2010 Effect of salt stress on decomposition of organic matter and nitrogen mineralization in animal manure amended soils. The Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5 (1),  9 – 18 http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=907DB601977067E0DDF19E5EA50ABEE6?doi=10.1.1.653.9547&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Wang L, Sun X, Li S, Zhang T and Zhang W 2014 Application of Organic Amendments to a Coastal Saline Soil in North China: Effects on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties and Tree Growth. PLOS ONE, 9(2) e89185. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089185

Xiong L, Schumaker K S and Zhu J K 2002 Cell signaling during cold, drough, and salt stress. Plant Cell 14 : 165 – 183. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC151254/pdf/PC14S1S165.pdf


Received 4 April 2017; Accepted 23 August 2017; Published 3 October 2017

Go to top