Livestock Research for Rural Development 28 (4) 2016 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Effect of feed supplementation of varying nutrient concentrations on growth performance and meat yield of indigenous (desi)chicken reared at rural households under tropical conditions

M Y Miah2, S D Chowdhury and A K F H Bhuiyan1

Department of Poultry Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh - 2202, Bangladesh
myoumsau2003@gmail.com
1 Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh - 2202, Bangladesh
2 Department of Poultry Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100, Bangladesh

Abstract

An experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of feed supplementation of varying nutrient concentrations on growth performance and meat yields of indigenous (desi) chickens. One hundred ninety two indigenous unsexed chicks aged 4 weeks were considered for the feeding trial. Chicks were divided into four dietary treatments having 4 replications (6 chicks per replication) and reared on littered floor in an open sided house by providing 0.092 m floor space per bird. Dietary treatments consisted of an arrangement of two diets that contained moderate energy density (MED): ME 2800 kcal/kg + CP 23% and high energy density (HED): ME 3000 kcal/kg + CP 23%. Supplementation levels were: Control (T0 = without supplemental feed except those farmers provided under traditional system), T1=25% feed supplementation under scavenging condition, T2= 50% feed supplementation under scavenging condition, T3= 75% feed supplementation under scavenging condition. The contents of CP, ME, Calcium (Ca) and total Phosphorous in MED diet were fitted with the requirements of Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS 1992).

Body weight and body weight gain were improved significantly with the increasing levels of feed supplementation compared to no feed supplementation group during the period of 3-14 weeks. Dressing percentage was significantly higher in 25%, 50% and 75% feed supplementation groups than the group which received no supplementary feed (P<0.05). Breast weight was significantly higher in 50% and 75% feed supplementation groups than 0% and 25% supplementation groups (P<0.001). Thigh, drumstick, wing and neck weight was significantly higher in 75% feed supplementation group than 0%, 25% and 50% supplementation groups (P<0.001).It was concluded that for scavenging indigenous chicks (3-14 week), 75% feed supplementation of a diet of similar composition (2800 ME kcal/kg and 23% CP diet for starter period and 2900 ME kcal/kg and 17% CP diet for grower period) would be sufficient to optimize feed intake, chick’s target weight of 950g and better meat yield in rural condition where birds would be on scavenging alongside supplemental feeding, thus enabling more saving of the feed cost to maximize profit.

Keywords: energy densities, feed supplementation, meat quality


Introduction

Bangladesh is an agricultural based country. About 71% of her population lives in rural areas (BBS, 2010). It is estimated that there are about 245 million chickens and 46.5 million ducks in Bangladesh (FAOSTAT-2013). The per capita consumption of poultry meat in 2006 was 3.63kg and at present chicken contributes 35.25% of total meat production of the country (Akbar et al., 2013). Approximately 20% of the protein consumed in developing countries comes from poultry meat and eggs (Alders and Pym, 2009). The poultry production phenomena in Bangladesh may broadly be divided into two major sub-sectors, namely commercial and family poultry.

It has been stated that the national share of commercial strain of chickens to indigenous family poultry in terms of egg production is almost equal (50:50) and that of meat production is 60:40 (Bhuiyan, 2011). Free range scavenging poultry are mostly indigenous or native birds locally known as ‘desi’ reared by farmers in small numbers in their households following traditional management (Chowdhury, 2013). In general, they are dependent on scavenging feed resources base (SFRB); they thrive under harsh nutritional and environmental conditions and are resistant to common resident diseases. The birds may differ in size, shape and production levels. Each bird produces a maximum of 1.5kg of meat and a female usually lays 35-40 eggs per year (Barua and Howlider, 1990; Barua and Yoshimura, 1997; Islam et al., 2003). Reports also indicate that the feeds the birds scavenge are deficient in energy and protein but high in fibre (Biswas et al., 2005), a key reason for their low productivity. Sonaiya (1995) was of the opinion that the productivity of scavenging chickens could be improved by interventions in management systems and the quality and quantity of feed on offer. Miah (2014) found that desi chicken achieved 950g body weight at 14 weeks of age by feeding a nutrient density of 2800 ME kcal/kg and 23% CP containing diet if reared in confinement.

Almost every family of rural Bangladesh is habituated in backyard poultry keeping and each rural household maintains about 6-16 chickens (Paul et al., 2003). According to Ukil (1992), scavenging feed is far from balanced and especially deficient in protein. Therefore, the increased productivity of desi chicken may not be obtained solely on scavenging feed. To increase meat and egg production in the village level, desi chickens need a type of diet that is adequate in terms of quality and quantity. Desi chicken may be more productive with improved diets when reared in confinement (Chowdhury et al., 2006) but growth target or weight at marketing is yet to be determined as per demand of the consumers. Nutritional manipulation to develop desi chicken as a meat type bird is to be carried out with diets of adequate nutrient density by rearing them both in confinement and under scavenging system of rearing.

The work reported here was therefore undertaken to investigate the growth potentials of indigenous (desi) chicks in scavenging systems of rearing by feeding supplemental diets containing different levels of energy and proteins. The study aimed at identifying the effect of feed supplementation on the growth of village chicken and their slaughter performances. The economical aspects of developing such chicken as meat birds under rural scavenging conditions with feed supplementation were also considered.


Materials and methods

The trial was conducted in farmer house under rural condition with chicks of 4 weeks age. Since the rural farmers were not in a position to take care of day old chicks during their early stage of growth without the help of broody hens and, there were problems of predators which might cause losses of chicks, it was decided to rear chicks for the first four weeks in the farm condition before distribution to the farmers. The distributed chicks will be more able to adapt under village condition. So, trials in the farm up to target weight were initially planned with chicks of 4 weeks of age.

A survey was conducted in three villages adjacent to Bangladesh Agricultural University to assess the existing village chicken production system. A formal survey schedule was used to collect relevant data, using a multi-stage sampling technique. A total of 32 village households were considered for the study and training was arranged for them. Subsequently an experiment was carried out in order to evaluate effects of feed supplementation to desi chicks on growth and meat yield under the rural condition of Bangladesh. One hundred ninety two 4 weeks old desi chicks were distributed among 32 farmers. Each farmer received 6 birds.

Table 1. Ingredients and nutrient composition of the diets of experiment 6

Ingredients (kg)

Diets

Starter (0-8 weeks)

Grower (8 weeks onwards)

MED

HED

MED

HED

Maize

15

35

12

12

Rice polish

18

10.5

22

20

Wheat Bran

4

0

14

5

Wheat

7

6

6

15

Broken rice

17

8

24

25

Soybean Meal

22

22

7

7

Protein Concentrate

1

1

0.5

Mustard oil cake

12.5

14

11

12.5

DCP

1

1

1

1

Methonine

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Lysine

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Salt

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Lime stone

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.55

Vitamin mineral premix

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Total

100

100

100

100

Nutrient composition

M E (kcal/ kg)

2838

3022

2731

2923

CP (%)

23.3

23.4

17.3

17.4

Ca (%)

1.23

1.22

1.17

1.13

Total P (%)

0.86

0.82

0.78

0.76

Lysine (%)

1.32

1.31

0.93

0.90

Methonine (%)

0.56

0.52

0.58

0.49

ME: CP

122

129

158

168

Starter diets, MED= moderate energy density: ME 2800 kcal/kg + CP 23% and HED=high energy density: ME- 3000 kcal/kg + CP 23%. Growing period: MED=moderate energy density: ME 2700 kcal/kg + CP 17% and HED= high energy density: ME 2900 kcal/kg + CP 17%.

Dietary treatments consisted of an arrangement of two diets that contained moderate energy density (MED): ME 2800 kcal/kg + CP 23% and high energy density (HED): ME 3000 kcal/kg + CP 23%. Supplementation levels were: Control (T0 = without supplemental feed except those farmers provided under traditional system), T1=25% feed supplementation under scavenging condition, T2= 50% feed supplementation under scavenging condition, T3= 75% feed supplementation under scavenging condition. The contents of CP, ME, Calcium (Ca) and total Phosphorous in MED diet were fitted with the requirements of broilers as suggested by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS 1992). Diets were formulated using locally available feedstuffs.

The chemical analyses of different feed ingredients were carried out by following standard methods (AOAC 2004; Kent et al 1967; Hall and Hacskaylo 1963). Proximate components, Calcium (Ca) and total Phosphorous (P) of those ingredients were determined in the Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Livestock Services (DLS) and in the Department of Poultry Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University. Calcium and total P were determined by atomic absorption and spectrophotometer (FAO 1989). Amino acids were determined by amino acid analyzer in the Institute of Food Science and Technology of BCSIR Laboratory in Dhaka.

Table 2. Layout of Experiment 6

Parameters

Diet-1

Diet-2

T0 T1 T2 T3 T0 T1 T2 T3

Feed supplementation level

0%

25%

50%

75%

0%

25%

50%

75%

Farmers

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

Chicks/Farmer

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

Total

24

24

24

24

24

24

24

24

Grand total

192

T1: ME 2800 kcal/kg + CP 23%, T2: ME 3000 kcal/kg + CP 23%.

Records were kept of body weight, feed consumption, production costs, mortality and sale price of live bird. Feed conversion ratio (FCR), net return, cost benefit ratio (BCR) and survivability were calculated. At the end of the experiment, one male and one female from each replication was randomly selected for processing. Processing of the birds and determination of meat yield parameters were recorded. Recorded and calculated data of the diets fed to birds were analyzed by SAS program.


Results

Growth performance

The initial live weight of indigenous chicks at the beginning of the experiment (4 weeks of age) was more or less similar but the differences in final live weight (Table 3) at 14 weeks of

Table 3. Growth performances of indigenous chicks fed on different nutrient density diets with different levels of feed supplementation

Parameters

Diets (D)

Level of feed supplementation

p

0%

25%

50%

75%

Mean

T

D

T×D

Initial body wt (g/b)

D1

167

167

170

170

169

0.15

0.60

0.81

D2

167

168

168

175

169

Mean

167

168

169

172

Final body wt (g/b)

D1

624

700

806

930

765

0.00

0.005

0.993

D2

631

710

818

944

776

Mean

628d

705c

812b

937a

Body weight gain (g/d)

D1

6.54

7.61

9.09

10.8

8.52

0.00

0.246

0.995

D2

6.64

7.74

9.28

11

8.66

Mean

6.59d

7.67c

9.18b

10.9a

Feed intake (g/b)

D1

-

850

1700

2550

1700

-

-

-

D2

-

850

1700

2550

1700

Mean

-

850

1700

2550

FCR

D1

-

1.56

2.67

3.36

2.54

0.00

0.234

0.916

D2

-

1.57

2.62

3.32

2.50

Mean

-

1.58c

2.65b

3.34a

Survivability%

D1

87.5

95.8

100

100

95.8

0.01

0.39

0.89

D2

87.5

95.8

95.8

100

94.8

Mean

87.5b

95.8a

97.9a

100a

abcd Means values having different superscripts in a row differ significantly, D1: ME 2800 kcal/kg + CP 23% and D2 : ME 3000 kcal/kg + CP 23%. T x D= Interaction of treatment and diet


Figure 1. Body weights of desi chicks fed on different energy density diets at 14 weeks of age

Figure 2. Weekly body weights of desi chicks fed on different energy density diets with different levels of feed supplementation

Age among the levels of supplementation (25%, 50% and 75%) differed significantly (P<0.001). All these levels of supplementation also differed from the control. The body weight gain also followed a similar trend. The lowest live weight gain was in the control group which was deprived of supplemental feed. Figure 2 indicates that the weekly body weight of chicks increased linearly in all groups throughout the experimental period. Although such an increasing growth trend with an advancement of age was normal, it clearly indicates that the 75% feed supplementation group had better growth than the other groups. The scavenging group had the lowest trend in growth as would be expected. Feed intake and FCR were calculated on the basis of supplied feed only (excluding the scavenging feeds). Highest survivability was found in 75% feed supplementation group which was significantly higher than the control group. The interaction effects of treatments and diets (T D) showed no significant differences among the feed supplementation levels with respect to body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, FCR and survivability (Table 3).

Carcass characteristics

The carcass characteristics and meat yields of indigenous chicks fed on different nutrient density diets and different level of supplementations are shown in Table 4. This results shows that indigenous chick’s dressing percentage was 61.08 for 0%, 63.25 for 25%, 61.99 for 50% and 63.88 for 75% feed supplementation at 14 weeks of age. Dressing percentage was significantly higher in 25%, 50% and 75% feed supplementation groups than the group which received no supplementary feed (P<0.05).

Table 4. Meat yield characteristics of indigenous (desi) chicks fed on different nutrient density diets with different level of supplementation (14 weeks)

Parameters

Diets (D)

Level of feed supplementation

Level of significance

0%

25%

50%

75%

Mean

T

D

T×D

Dressing percentage

D1

60.9

62.4

62.3

63.8

62.3

*

NS

NS

D2

61.3

64.1

61.7

64

62.8

Mean

61.1b

63.3a

62ab

63.9a

Breast meat %

D1

24

24.5

25.7

26.5

25.2

**

NS

NS

D2

24.5

23

24.7

27

24.8

Mean

24.3b

23.7b

25.2ab

26.7a

Thigh %

D1

9.19

9.31

9.25

10.5

9.56

***

NS

NS

D2

9.31

9.37

9.25

10.4

9.59

Mean

9.25b

9.34b

9.25b

10.4a

Drumstick %

D1

7.19

7.56

8.00

9.25

8.00

***

NS

NS

D2

7.44

7.53

7.86

9.13

7.99

Mean

7.31c

7.55bc

7.93b

9.19a

Wing %

D1

7.31

7.60

7.09

8.38

7.60

***

NS

NS

D2

7.44

7.41

6.59

8.45

7.47

Mean

7.38bc

7.50b

6.84c

8.41a

Neck %

D1

6.38

6.50

7.63

8.50

7.25

***

NS

NS

D2

6.07

6.36

7.85

8.85

7.28

Mean

6.22c

6.43c

7.74b

8.68a

Gizzard %

D1

4.75

4.50

5.65

5.18

5.02

*

NS

NS

D2

4.66

4.49

5.27

5.05

4.87

Mean

4.71b

4.50b

5.46a

5.11ab

Liver %

D1

3.50

3.88

4.00

4.08

3.86

**

NS

NS

D2

3.56

3.97

4.27

4.38

4.04

Mean

3.53b

3.92a

4.13a

4.23a

abcd Means values having different superscripts in a row differ significantly, NS (P>0.05), *** (P<0.05), *** (P<0.001), D 1: ME 2800 kcal/kg + CP 23% and D2: ME 3000 kcal/kg + CP 23%. T x D= Interaction of treatment and Diet

Breast weight was significantly higher in 50% and 75% feed supplementation groups than 0% and 25% supplementation groups (P<0.001). Thigh, drumstick, wing and neck weight was significantly higher in 75% feed supplementation group than 0%, 25% and 50% supplementation groups (P<0.001). Gizzard weight was higher in 50% feed supplementation group than 0%, 25% and 75% supplementation groups (Table 4). Liver weight was significantly higher in 25%, 50% and 75% feed supplementation group than 0% supplementation groups (P<0.001). The interaction effects of treatments and diets (T D) were found to be non significant among the feed supplementation levels for the dressing percentage, breast, thigh, drumstick, wing, neck, gizzard and liver weight (Table 4).

Cost and return analysis

Cost of production and net return from rearing indigenous chicks for meat production for a period of 14 weeks is given in Table 5. The table shows that total rearing cost of the chicks ranged from Tk. 91.01 to 138.085 for four treatment groups. The highest (P<0.001) rearing cost was observed in 75% supplementation group (Tk.138.08) and lowest in control group where chicks were maintained traditionally. There was a great variation in total income from live chicks of different groups of chicks which were between Tk. 150.66 and 224.85. Net return was lowest (Tk.59.65) in the control group where chicks were maintained on traditional method and highest (Tk.86.76) in chicks which were reared by 75% supplementation daily in addition to scavenging up to 14 weeks of age. Net return was significantly higher in 75% feed supplementation group than 0% supplementation group (P<0.05). Similar trend was observed while calculating BCR which were 1.75 for 0%, 1.8 for 25%, 1.68 for 50%, and 1.625 for 75% supplemental feeding groups. The interaction effects of treatments and diets (TD) were found no significant differences among the feed supplementation levels for the total cost of production, return, net return, net return/kg and BCR (Table 5).

Table 5. Economics of indigenous chicks fed on different nutrient density diets with different levels of supplementation

Parameter
(BDT/chick)

Diets (D)

levels of feed supplementation

Level of significance

0%

25%

50%

75%

Mean

T

D

T×D

Total cost

D1

91

96.5

112

137

109

NS

NS

NS

D2

91

96.9

123

139

112

Mean

91c

96.7c

117b

138a

Return

D1

150

168

193

223

184

***

NS

NS

D2

151

170

196

226

186

Mean

151d

169c

195b

225a

Net return

D1

58.8

71.5

81.5

85.7

74.4

***

NS

NS

D2

60.5

73.5

73.4

87.8

73.8

Mean

59.6b

72.5ab

77.5ab

86.8a

Net return/kg

D1

93.5

102

101

92

97.2

NS

NS

NS

D2

94.6

103

89.8

93

95.1

Mean

94

103

95.4

92.5

BCR

D1

1.74

1.79

1.73

1.62

1.72

NS

NS

NS

D2

1.76

1.81

1.63

1.63

1.71

Mean

1.75

1.8

1.68

1.63

abcd Means values having different superscripts in a row differ significantly, NS (P>0.05), *** (P<0.001), D1: ME 2800 kcal/kg + CP 23% and D2: ME 3000 kcal/kg + CP 23%. T x D = Interaction of treatment and Diet


Discussion

Growth performance

The weekly body weight of chicks increased linearly in all groups throughout the experimental period. Although such an increasing growth trend with an advancement of age was normal, it clearly indicates that the 75% feed supplementation group had better growth than the birds receiving other levels of supplementation. The scavenging group that had no supplementation of feed showed the lowest trend in growth. Feed intake and FCR were calculated on the basis of supplemental feed only (excluding scavenging feeds). Survivability was higher at increasing levels of feed supplementation. Improved growth due to supplemental feeding and lowest growth in the control birds imply that scavenging feeds are deficient in nutrient concentration as compared to supplemental feed.

In general, chickens given supplementary feed yield high flock sizes, high growth and are less prone to diseases and parasites (Roberts and Gunaratne 1992; Tadelle and Ogle 2001; Ogle et al., 2004). These results indicate that the practice of supplementary feeding is a potential avenue for intervention to enhance productivity. Thamabood and Choprakan (1982) studied the responses of indigenous chickens to supplementary feeding with 10, 12 and 14% dietary protein besides their natural scavenging. They found that the growth rates of indigenous chickens of less than 16 weeks old were 10.6, 8.5 and 8.7g/bird/day respectively. Hence, there is a need for a good feeding program made up of home grown feeds that ensures greater returns in terms of meat yield. Any attempt to intervene the existing village chicken production system by the way of supplementary feeding should carefully consider quality and quantity of the scavenging feed resource base.

Carcass characteristics

Miah et al., (2014) found that dressing yield, breast, thigh, drumstick, wing and neck weight of Bangladeshi indigenous grower chicks were 61.95, 26.75, 10.71, 9.56, 9.03, 8.70% respectively at 14 weeks after feeding a diet containing 23% CP and 2800 kcal ME/kg DM; 19% CP and 2900 kcal ME/kg DM during brooding and growing period respectively. This was close to the results of dressing parameters of the 75% feed supplementation level of the diet containing 23% and 17% CP during brooding and growing period respectively.

Cost and return analysis

Net return was lowest in the conventional diet (CD) where chicks were maintained on traditional method and highest in chicks which were reared by 75% supplementation of improved diet in addition to scavenging up to 14 weeks of age. Feed supplementation to rural chickens led to improvement in performance but cheaper feed ingredients are needed in order to get high economic gains. Feed supplementation increased growth rate during the early part of the growth stage. SFRB around the homestead had a great influence on performance of chickens. Net return was non-significant among the 25%, 50% and 75% feed supplementation groups. Higher feed supplementation resulted higher net return.

The result of BCR was 1.8 in 25% feed supplementation group which was greater than other groups. The positive response of supplementing local chickens a locally formulated ration to accelerate early chick growth needs economic consideration. This poses a challenge to utilize the advantages of the low-input system while at the same time attempt to achieve their genetic potential. On assumption that the low-input system will prevail in rural communities and that currently there is no suitable breed to substitute local chickens, investigations into optimal feeding strategies ranging from supplementary feeding to whole feeding are encouraged within the framework of the family poultry farming system.


Conclusion

For scavenging indigenous chicks (3-14 week), 75% feed supplementation of a diet of similar composition (2800 ME kcal/kg and 23% CP diet for starter period and 2900 ME kcal/kg and 17% CP diet for grower period) would be sufficient to optimize feed intake, chick’s target weight of 950g and better meat yield in rural condition where birds would be on scavenging alongside supplemental feeding, thus enabling more saving of the feed cost to maximize profit.


Acknowledgement

The authors gratefully acknowledge the Ministry of Education, Govt. of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh for financing this project.


References

Akbar MA, Amin MR, Ali MA, Bhuiyan MSA, Kabir AKMA and Siddiki SR 2013 Animal Husbandry: A Business Education for Today and Tomorrow 3rd Annual Conference and Seminar 2013, Bangladesh Society for Animal Production Education and Research (BSAPER)

Alders RG and Pym RAE 2009 Village poultry: still important to millions, eight thousand years after domestication. World’s Poultry Science Journal 65 181-190.

AOAC 2004 Official Methods of Analysis. Association of the Official Agricultural Chemists. Washington, D.C. 1-34.

Barua A and Howlider MAR 1990 Prospect of native chickens in Bangladesh. Poultry Adviser, 23 57-61.

Barua A and Yoshimura Y 1997 Rural poultry keeping in Bangladesh. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 53 387-394.

BBS 2010 Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Statistical Year Book of Bangladesh. Ministry of Planning, Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. pp. 96.

Bhuiyan A K F H 2011 Implementation of national livestock development policy (2007) and national poultry development policy (2008): Impact on smallholder livestock rearers. Keynote paper presented at the South Asia Pro Poor Livestock Policy Programme (SAPPLP)-BRAC workshop held at BRAC Centre Inn, Dhaka.

BIS 1992 Bureaus of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.

Biswas MSA, Chowdhury SD, Mustafa MG and Bell J 2005 Availability and nutrient of scavengable feed resources and crop and gizzard contents of scavenging ducks in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the 4th International Poultry Show and Seminar, World’s Poultry Science Association, Bangladesh Branch, Dhaka, Bangladesh. pp. 167-172.

Chowdhury SD, Ahmed S and Hamid M A 2006 Improved feeding of desi chicken reared in confinement. The Bangladesh Veterinarian, 23: 29-35.

Chowdhury SD 2013 Family poultry production in Bangladesh: is it meaningful or an aimless journey? World’s Poultry Science Journal, 69 649-665.

FAO 1989 Production Year Book. Food and Agricultural Organization, 50:216-219.

FAOSTAT 2013 Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy. http://faostat.fao.org/site/573/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=573#ancor

Hall WC and Hackskaylo J 1963 Methods and Procedure for Plant Biochemical and Physical Research. The Exchange Store, College Station, Texas. 9-16.

Islam MN, Huque QME, Salauddin M and Sarker MSK 2003 Potentiality of native genotypes of ducks. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Poultry Show and Seminar, WPSA Bangladesh Branch, pp. 259-270.

Kent Jones D W and Amos A J 1967 Modern Cereal Chemistry, 6th edn. Food Trade Press LTD. 563-564.

Miah MY, Chowdhury S D, Bhuiyan AKFH and Ali MS 2014 Effect of different levels of dietary energy on growth performance of indigenous desi chicks reared in confinement up to target weight of 950g. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 26(7): http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd26/7/miah26124.html

Ogle B, Minh DV and Lindberg JE 2004 Effect of scavenging and protein supplement on the feed intake and performance of improved pullets and laying hens in northern Vietnam. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 17(11) 1553-1561.

Paul DC, Huque QME, Islam MR and Jalil MA 2003 Organic chicken farming a tool for family nutrition and cash generation: Bangladesh perspectives. Proceedings of 3rd International Poultry Show and Seminar, Feb 28-March 2, 2003, Worlds Poultry Science Association-Bangladesh branch, Dhaka, Bangladesh. pp. 237-243.

Roberts JA and Gunaratne SP 1992 The scavenging feed resource base for village chickens in a developing country. Proceedings of 19th World's Poultry Congress, Amsterdam, 1, 20-24.

SAS 2008 Statistical Analysis Systems. SAS User’s Guide: Version 9.2, 2nd edition. SAS Inst. Inc. USA.

Sonaiya EB and Swan SEJ 2005 Small-scale poultry production, technical guide manual. FAO Animal Production and Health 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.

Tadelle D and Ogle B 2001 Village poultry production systems in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production 33(6) 521-537.

Thammabood S and Choprakarn K 1982 Growth Performance and Protein requirements of Native Chicken raised in the rural condition. Department of Animal Science 20th conference of Kasetsart University, Bangkhen, Bangkok, Thailand.

Ukil MA 1992 Availability of Nutrients to scavenging chickens and duck in Bangladesh. MSc thesis, Department of Poultry Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.


Received 22 January 2016; Accepted 29 February 2016; Published 1 April 2016

Go to top