|Livestock Research for Rural Development 27 (11) 2015||Guide for preparation of papers||LRRD Newsletter||
Citation of this paper
The experiment was to investigate the organoleptic characteristics of eggs laid by local hens (Gallus domesticus) fed different proportions of Skipjack fish waste (SFW) as a source of omega-3 fatty acid. There were three parts of processing industrial waste of Skipjack fish were used in diets, namely: head entrails (HE), filleting waste, and arachon, and each part were composed into five levels of SFW: 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. So, there were 15 types of diet. During feeding trials, feed and water were given two times daily at 07.00 and 16.00, in which the diets were given about 10% above the average daily consumption, and the water was given ad libitum. There were 36 fairly trained panelists involved for organoleptic test that rated the egg for color, aroma, texture and flavor, and overall acceptability on a seven point hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely to 7 = like extremely). The egg organoleptic test results were analyzed descriptively, while the data of the organoleptic test was then analyzed by the Friedman test method.
The organoleptic test results showed that the highest rating of the egg color were from the hens fed the diets containing 10% HE, 10% filleting waste, and 10% archon. For the egg aroma, the highest score was acquired at level 10% HE, 10% filleting waste, and 5% arachon in the hens diet. The highest ratings of both egg texture and flavor were from the hens fed the diets containing 10% HE, 5% filleting waste, and 10% arachon. It was concluded that the use of 10% level of HE, filleting waste, and arachon of Skipjack fish industrial waste in the local hen diets achieved the best products results on characteristic of color, aroma, texture and flavor of eggs.
Keyword: feedstuff, industrial waste, quality of eggs
Chicken egg and its derivates (whole egg, egg yolk and egg white) have well-known properties. Chicken egg was a complete food source of components essential to human nutrition, like high quality proteins, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals (Powrie and Nakaim 1986; Simopoulos 2011). Eggs have complete nutrients for the growth of living organisms, and it was one of an animal product rich in nutrient sources that can address to the nutritional problems faced today.
In poultry production, favourable content of fatty acids in meat and eggs is achieved through feeding hens and broilers diets with high portion of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid of plant and animal origin (Škirticet al 2008). Omega-3 long chain poly unsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids are dietary essential as they cannot be synthesized by monogastric animals indigenously. Several researchers reported low intake of these critical nutrients by humans (Baucells et al 2000). Incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolks by changing the hens’ diet has been more successful, and has been reported in a number of studies (Scheideler et al 1998). These experiments altered the yolk fatty acid profile by adding either flax seed or fish products to the hens’ feed. An earlier paper (Ayerza and Coates1998) presents the results of the compositional analysis of the eggs which showed omega-3 content increased, while cholesterol and saturated fatty acid contents decreased with the chia diets. Leke et al (2013) reported that Skipjack fish waste (SFW) as a source of omega-3 fatty acid contained 8.75 mg/g in head entrails, 6.4 mg/g in filleting waste, and 6.35 mg/g in arachon.
The physical composition and quality of eggs are influenced by several factors, including the chicken’s family, age, season, disease, environment (temperature and humidity), feed, and the chickens management systems (North and Bell 1990); in which the quality will in turn contribute to consumer decision in determining a choice. In order to meet the nutritional adequacy level of people needs, it should be balanced with improving the nutritional quality and safety supervision of farm products. Therefore, the way in improving the nutritional value of the products can be done by adding a high biological value substrate, into the farm commodities, which required by the human body as well.
Fatty acids are long chain polyunsaturated (PUFA) can be divided into four classes, namely omega-3, omega-6, omega-7, and omega-9 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids act to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride contents, stimulate to reduce the red blood blobs, and reduce high blood pressure, prevent hardening of arteries, as well as slowing the growth of cancer cells. Besides preventing cardiovascular disease, the omega-3 fatty acids also affect positively the immune function and blood lipid levels. In addition, Omega-3 fatty acids are also required for the growth of brain tissue and the human retina. However, positive and high correlation between some long-chain acids, such as α-linolenic (C18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6n-3), was proved to have negative influence on some organoleptic traits, such as odor (so called “fishy odor“) and color (lighter egg yolk) (Van Elswyk et al 1992; Leeson et al 1998).
One way in improving feed ration that can be applied and expected to have added value to the local chicken egg quality is the use of Skipjack industrial waste in the laying hens diet, as a source of omega-3. The consumer acceptance of the product can be seen with the organoleptic test. The organoleptic test was carried out using a hedonic scale, a certain hedonic test usually aims to determine the quality by the response to the properties panel. Commonly, the organoleptic test is for texture, smell or aroma, flavor, and color, while preference test is one kind of acceptance tests (Rahayu 1998). Van Elswyket al 1992; Meluzzi et al 2000 have been investigated the effect of fish and rapeseed oils and of linseed on organoleptic traits of eggs have already been investigated, and their focused the study on assessing effects that combinations of different oils of plant and animal origin have on aroma, taste, overall impression and presence of admixtures in eggs. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the organoleptic characteristic of eggs laid by local hens fed source of omega-3fatty acids.
The treatments in this study were processing industrial waste of Skipjack fish. There were three parts of processing industrial waste of Skipjack fish, as the source of omega–3, which used as the treatments (factor A) in hen diets, namely: head entrails (HE), filleting waste, and arachon. The diets (factor B) of this study were five levels of Skipjack fish waste (SFW): 0% , 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% , hence to be 15 types of diet. Based on diets contained corn 45%, soybean cake 10%, rice bran 17%, fish meal 7%, coconut cake 10%, oil 5%, top mix 0.5%, salt 0.5%, and CaCO3 5%. The composition and nutrients of the diets are shown in Tables 1 and 2.
During feeding trials, feed and water were given to hens two times daily at 07.00 and 16.00, in which the diets were given about 10% above the average daily consumption, and the water was given ad libitum.
The testing was conducted involving 36 fairly trained panelists. The variables of organoleptic test taken were color, aroma, texture, and flavor of the egg (Soekarto 1985). The test was carried out between the hours of 09:00 to 11:00 am, with the consideration within that time the panelists are not too hungry nor too full.
|Table 1. Composition of the Diets|
|Based diets (%)||Treatments (%)||Total (%)|
|Head entrails||Filleting waste||Arachon|
|Table 2. Nutrients of The Diets|
|Crude protein||Crude Fat||Crude Fibre||Calcium||Phosphor||Lysine||Methionine|
Egg samples were coded with three digit randomized numbers. The samples were served to the panelists individually on paper plates in a random order to evaluate. At the time of testing each panelist was given a form sheet to use for testing. Organoleptic characteristics of the eggs were recorded on a seven point hedonic scale, namely: 1) extremely dislike, 2) dislike, 3) somewhat dislike, 4) neutral, 5) somewhat like, 6) like, and 7) extremely like, with similar ascending ratings for the desired attributes of color, aroma, texture, and flavor of the egg.
Calculations of the egg organoleptic test results were analyzed descriptively, while the data of the organoleptic test was then analyzed by the Friedman rank test method (Steel and Torrie 1995; Montgomery 2008) using the computer program of Minitab (2007).
The panelists mean acceptability ratings for the samples of eggs organoleptic testing is shown in Table 3.
|Table 3. Effect of Dietary Levels and Different Parts of Skipjack Fish Waste in Diets on Organoleptic Properties of Hen Eggs|
Color is an important attribute of foods because it can increase or decrease its acceptability by panelists (Goldberg et al 2013). Color is the first sensory properties that can be viewed directly by the panelists. Parameters of color in food have an important role. The colors on the food can be determined by several factors such as pigments, effect of heat on sugar (caramel), and the presence of other ingredients blending (Winarno 1997). Colors can visually attract the attention of consumers either to rate any food item, or leave an impression to like or dislike it.
The panelists acceptability mean ratings toward eggs color from the hens fed diets containing 0% to 20% of HE (head entrails), filleting waste, and arachon were ranged from 4.3 to 5.1, 4.3 to 5.7, and 4.9 to 5.8, respectively (Table 3), which means neutral to like. Friedman test showed that the addition of overall levels of HE, filleting waste, and arachon into the hen diets were similarly affected by the panelists acceptability ratings.
The highest value of the rating of color was obtained at the levels of the addition of 10% HE, 10% filleting waste, and 5% to 15% arachon into chicken diets. The highest rating of the eggs color was from the hens fed the diets containing 10% HE, 10% filleting waste, and 10% arachon, while the lowest rating was obtained at 0% of all treatments. Jiang et al (1992) stated that the differences of feedstuff will produce a different colorin egg yolk but did not result in any differences in egg white.
Aroma is one of the parameters in the hedonic test that will affect to the consumer acceptance of food item. In particular, aroma of eggs is one of the most important parameters that affect the level of consumer acceptance. The panelists acceptability mean ratings toward eggs aroma from the hens fed the diets containing 0% to 20% of HE (head entrails), filleting waste, and arachon ranged from 4.4 to 4.6, 4.6 to 4.9, and 5.1 to 5.9, respectively (Table 3), which means neutral to like. Friedman test shows that the addition of overall levels of HE, fillet, and arachon into the hen diets were the same effect to the panelists acceptability ratings of eggs aroma.
The highest value of the rating of aroma was obtained at the levels of the addition of 10% HE, 10% filleting waste and 5% arachon into chicken diets. The highest rating of the egg aroma were from the hens fed the diets containing 10% HE, 10% filleting waste, and 5% arachon, while the lowest ratings were from the hens fed the diets containing 20% HE, 5%, 15% and 20% of filleting waste, and 0% arachon. Feeding Skipjack processing wastes contained omega – 3 to the laying hens has made possible causes fishy smell to the eggs produced. It was supports by Jiang and Sim (1994) who states that chickens fed different diets will produces of eggs with a different scent.
The panelists acceptability mean ratings toward eggs texture from the hens fed the diets containing 0% to 20% of HE (head entrails), filleting waste, and arachon were ranged from 5.2 to 5.8, 5.1 to 5.9, and 5.1 to 5.7, respectively (Table 3), which means somewhat like to like. Friedman test shows that the addition of overall levels of HE, filleting waste, and arachon into the hen diets were similar to the panelists acceptability ratings of eggs texture.
The highest value of the rating of texture was obtained at the levels of the addition of 15% HE, 15% filleting waste and 5% arachon into chicken diets. The highest rating of the eggs texture was from the hens fed the diets containing 10% HE, 5% filleting waste and 10% arachon, while the lowest rating was from the hens fed the diets containing 0% HE, 20% of fillet and 0% arachon.
Food flavor is an important factor related to organoleptic assessment. Taste likes of food in the mouth is the result of chemical interactions between food with taste receptors through a complicated and complex process, so that a known favourite of the food that is consumed through perception (Nagodawitha 1994).
The panelists acceptability mean ratings toward eggs flavor from the hens fed the diets containing 0% to 20% of HE (head entrails), filleting waste and arachon ranged from 4.9 to 5.5, 4.9 to 5.4, and 4.9 to 5.6, respectively (Table 3). Friedman test shows that the addition of overall levels of HE, filleting waste, and arachon into the hen diets was similar to the panelists acceptability ratings of egg flavor.
The highest value of the reating of flavor was obtained at the levels of the addition of 10% HE, 5% filleting waste, and of 0% arachon into chicken diets. The highest rating of the eggs flavor were from the hens fed the diets containing 10% HE, 0% and 5% filleting waste, and 10% arachon, while the lowest ratings were from the hens fed the diets containing 20% HE, 10%, to 20% of filleting waste, and 15% arachon.
In this study, eggs from hens fed on 10% fish waste in the diet have scored higher in preference evaluations then those fed a control diet. The higher the level of fish waste was not accepted by consumers. There was no information in the literature about effect of Skipjack tuna waste on sensory attributes of the local hens eggs. With respect to the sensory attributes of the eggs, Gonzalez-Esquerra and Leeson (2001) have been reported significant challenges to the inclusion of higher quantities of n-3 fatty acids into eggs from a consumer acceptance standpoint. Referring to assessed organoleptic traits (aroma, taste and overall impression), Gonzalez-Esquerra and Leeson (2000) reported that poor-quality fish meal or fish oil have contributed to objectionable sensory attributes in eggs. Moreover, negative effects of linseed oil and fish oil on organoleptic traits of eggs were also pointed out by Van Elswyk et al (1992), Caston et al (1994) and Marshall et al (1994). Eggs from hens fed on flax seed or fish products (meal and oil) have scored significantly lower in preference evaluations than those fed a control diet (Van Elswyk 1992, 1995, Caston et al 1994). It is recognized that the potential for differences in consumer acceptance of n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs, depending on such factors as cooking methods and cultural acceptance.
Production of eggs enriched with n-3 PUFA has significant contribution in efforts to promote healthy nutrition in developed countries. However, usage of feedstuffs rich in n-3 PUFA in layer diets requires great caution as sensory traits of eggs quality need to be preserved. Because, consumers in developed countries are still not ready to tolerate bad aroma or taste of such food.
It was concluded, that the use of Skipjack fish industrial waste as the source of omega-3 PUFA fatty acids, especially HE, filleting waste, and arachon at 10% level of each in the local hen diets achieved the best results on organoleptic characteristics of color, aroma, texture and flavor of eggs.
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Received 20 May 2015; Accepted 27 September 2015; Published 1 November 2015
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