Livestock Research for Rural Development 26 (9) 2014 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Financial impact of Foot and Mouth Disease and Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia along the cattle marketing chain in selected districts in Uganda

S A Baluka, A Mugisha and M Ocaido

College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, Kampala,
P.O Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
sbaluka3@gmail.com

Abstract

A study was done to determine the financial impact of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Contagious Bovine Pleuro Pneumonia (CBPP) along the cattle marketing chain in International Border Districts (IBDs) (Rakai and Isingiro), and inland districts (IDs) (Nakasongola and Nakaseke), Uganda.

 

In Isingiro district, during FMD outbreaks bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value respectively, amounting to a loss of USD 196.1 in small cattle herd sized farms and USD 1,553 in medium farms annually. No cattle were salvage sold in the large farms. Also in Isingiro, there were marked financial losses caused by reduction of milk sales during FMD quarantine periods. In Nakasongola district, CBPP financial losses due to reduction of milk sales during a six month quarantine period ranged from USD 105 to USD 209. IDs earned more income from cattle markets than the IBDs hence suffered more marketing losses. There was 31% revenue reduction from cattle markets in all study districts during the study period (2006-2010), of which 52% of the losses were incurred in Nakasongola due to CBPP, 36% in Isingiro district due to FMD and 11% in Nakaseke due to FMD. About 49% of losses (USD 223,216) were due to CBPP outbreaks in Nakasongola and 52% of losses (USD 244,215) were due FMD in Isingiro (2006-2010), Nakaseke in 2007 and Nakasongola in 2010.  FMD outbreaks were more wide spread; hence vaccination against FMD should be done in all the study districts. While control measures against CBPP should be done in IDs more specifically in Nakasongola.

Key words: disease control, financial losses, livelihoood, salvage sales


Introduction

Livestock are among the few tradable commodities possessed by poor households living in the arid and semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa (Fevre et al 2006, AU-IBAR 2010). Livestock provide a potential pathway out of poverty for rural producers and other actors along the marketing chain where market access exists, constitute a means of investment and fulfill important networking functions (Rich and Perry 2011, Perry et al 2003). 

 

Animal diseases affect all livestock owning households and actors along the marketing chain including traders, transporters and all people employed in the livestock sector and consumers by threatening their assets and making their incomes insecure (Rich and Perry 2011; Perry et al. 2003). An FMD outbreak can reduce beef exports up to 32% as a result of animal health implications and production losses (Otieno et al 2008). Hagerman et al (2009) estimated the market value of animals lost during FMD outbreaks using a schedule of the market value based on the pre-disease market conditions and concluded that changes in market prices contribute to the losses suffered by farmers.

 

Persistence of TADs in any part of the world poses serious risk to the global animal agriculture and food security besides endangering international trade (Domenech and Eddi 2005). A country’s FMD status is an important determinant for international trade of beef and presence of TADs in most SSA countries constitutes market access barriers for livestock inputs and outputs; restrict sales of the outputs to less profitable local and informal markets (Rushton 2009, AU-IBAR 2010, Kitching et al 2007). Animal diseases threaten the animal products marketing sector and exert ripple effects to the wider economy (Pritchett et al. 2005, Morgan and Prakash 2006; Rich and Wanyoike 2011, Perry and Grace 2009, Rich and Perry 2011). FMD and CBPP cause loss of production and livelihoods to the vulnerable people, increase disease control costs, restrict trade in cattle and cattle products; reduce sales and lower prices (Webber and Labaste 2010; Tomo, 2009; Vosloo et al 2002, Kitching et al 2007, Perry et al 2004, Nkhori 2004) reduce the value of marketable outputs besides undermining national economies and farmers’ livelihoods (Bennet 2003, Thomson 2005).

 

In 2000, the Rift Valley Fever outbreak led to imposition of trade bans on live animals from Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya with resultant economic impacts; the total economic value of animal trade in the Somali region of Ethiopia fell by $132 million, approximately 42% reduction compared to the normal or non-outbreak years (Rich and Wanyoike 2011).

 

Animal diseases affect the amount as well as the timing and certainty of marketing and income from livestock enterprises thus depriving farmers particularly the smallholders of cash to buy feeds and replacement stock (Morgan and Prakash 2006, FAO 2007). These diseases impose heavy costs on farmers and reduce the incentive to invest in high yielding exotic breeds that are more susceptible to tropical diseases (MAAIF 2010). FMD and CBPP and their control policies such as ring vaccination and restriction of animal movements that are enforced in affected areas to limit the extent of spread during outbreaks comprise major constraints to livestock production in Uganda (Balinda et al 2010) and limit local trade as well as access to major export markets (King 2002). 

 

Uganda’s performance in the global livestock export market is negligible except for hides and skins where Uganda had a 1% market share (Moyini et al 2005), but showed a downward trend probably due to the presence of TADs (King 2002). FMD herd prevalence was high (24%) in Isingiro with even a higher prevalence (34%) in adult cattle (Baluka 2014; Baluka et al 2014). CBPP prevalence was particularly high (24%) in Nakasongola (Baluka 2014, Baluka et al 2013).

 

It was against the above back ground that a study was conducted to determine the financial impact of FMD and CBPP along the cattle marketing chain in inland districts of Nakasongola and Nakaseke and International border districts of Isingiro and Rakai in the cattle corridor, Uganda. The outputs of this study would be used to motivate farmers, local government, extension staff, government of Uganda, policy makers and various actors along the cattle marketing chain to invest in prevention and control of these diseases. Farmers’ cooperation with Veterinary Department is very crucial so as to minimize transmission of these diseases and the associated financial losses during outbreaks.


Materials and methods

A study was conducted in international border districts of Rakai and Isingiro, and inland districts of Nakasongola and Nakaseke respectively within Uganda’s cattle corridor. Locations of the study districts were as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. A map of Uganda showing the location of the study districts

The study involved case studies done in cattle herds and cattle markets affected by FMD and CBPP outbreaks. The studies were done in 11 households for CBPP in Nakasongola and 26 households in Mbaare sub-county in Isingiro district for FMD distributed under small, medium and large herd sizes as shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Distribution of number of study farms according to herd sizes
Herd category Isingiro Nakasongola
Herd size Number of herds Herd size Number of herds
Small

12

3

72

4

Medium

85

9

213

3

Large

260

5

300

4

Financial market losses to farmers were considered to include: salvage sale losses (live cattle and meat sales) and milk quarantine losses caused by FMD and CBPP.

Live cattle salvage sale losses = age specific number of cattle salvage sold * age specific salvage sale cattle price loss per head of cattle.

 

Loss due to reduction of milk production during FMD outbreak = ratio of lactating cattle infected with FMD in the herd* reduction in milk yield (litres) due to FMD clinical disease* duration of clinical FMD *price per litre of milk.

 

Milk sale loss due to quarantine = Amount of milk produced per day by all lactating cattle in the herd* sale loss reduction in price per litre of milk * duration of the quarantine.

 

Market revenue losses analysis was done in two cattle markets in each district. In Nakasongola district, Nakitoma and Wabinyoyi cattle markets were chosen. In Nakaseke district Ngoma and Kinyogoga livestock markets were chosen. In Rakai district, Kakuuto and Kamuli livestock markets were chosen. In Isingiro district, Bugango and Rwenseke livestock markets were chosen.

 

Market revenue analysis considered bad and good cattle marketing seasons. The bad season falls within the dry season or drought (January -March and June –August) when cattle move long distances in search for pastures and water, they tend to lose weight, and are generally in poor body condition, the total cattle turnover in cattle markets is low and cattle prices are also low. The good season occurs during the rainy season when cattle have enough pasture and water, cattle are in good body condition, total cattle turnover in markets is high and cattle prices are high. The good season includes festive seasons such as Christmas, Easter, Eid fitir and Eid Aduha.

 

Annual market revenue losses were calculated as = Total income earned from cattle during good season months + total income earned from cattle sales during the bad season months. Where by:

 

i)  Annual total income earned from cattle during good season months = number of months in a year in which cattle were sold during good season * price levied per head of cattle * average number of cattle sold during good season market days.

ii)  Annual total income earned from cattle during bad season months = number of months in a year in which cattle are sold during bad season * price levied per head of cattle * average number of cattle sold during the bad season market days.

 

During estimation of cattle market revenue losses:

 

It was assumed that:

 

(i)   If the outbreak lasted 1-4 months, the quarantine period was 6 months; 2 months fell within the good season and 4 months fell within the bad season.

(ii)  If an outbreak lasted for 6months or more then the quarantine period lasted for one year or longer.

a)   The cattle prices  levied per head of cattle were made comparable to price values charged during 2010 by compounding the prices charged  in the previous years (2006-2009) using the formula:

 

P = Pi (1+r)n

 

Where P= Discounted price in previous year earlier than 2010

 

Pi = Price during previous year earlier than 2010

n = number of years before 2010

r = discounting rate of 7%

 

The market losses in the inland and international border districts and between districts within the same category were determined. The significance difference in revenue was determined using a chi-square test.

The market revenues were determined under the following scenarios:

 

i)    Revenue earned when there was no FMD/CBPP outbreak

ii)   Revenue earned when there were FMD/CBPP outbreaks

iii)  Income lost when there was FMD/CBPP outbreaks.

iv)  The unit of exchange used was 2550 Uganda Shillings for 1 US Dollar.


Results

In the FMD case study herds in Isingiro, it was found that 61% of the herd which constituted 25% of the bulls in small herds was salvage sold at a price 88% less than the market value. While 11% of the total herd was salvage sold in medium sized herds which constituted 20% of cows which was 83% less than market value. No cattle were sold from large herds at salvage prices during outbreaks and quarantine. The salvage sale losses associated with FMD outbreaks were as shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Salvage sale losses in US Dollars (USD) associated with FMD outbreaks

 

Small

Medium

Large

Salvage loss USD

196

1553

0

In Isingiro district, the average milk yield per cow was 0.90.45 and 2.10.3 litres during dry and wet season respectively with each litre of milk costing USD 0.17 and 0.13 respectively. During FMD outbreaks, there was 42% drop in milk yield for 12 weeks in infected cattle. Twelve percent of milk which was usually sold was not sold during this period. However, during FMD quarantine period, milk production was resumed by recovered cattle, however only 12 % of the milk was sold. The financial loss due to no sales during FMD clinical period and reduction of milk sales during the quarantine period were as shown in Table 3.

 Table 3: The financial losses due to no sales during FMD clinical period and loss due to reduced milk sales during the quarantine period in case study herds in Isingiro in USD.

Herd size category

Sale loss due  to no sales during FMD outbreak

Milk sale loss caused due to  FMD quarantine

Total  milk sale loss due to FMD

Small

16

293

367

Medium

59

606

864

Large

252

2,571

3,665

Average

109

1,118

1,227

% composition of   type of milk sale loss to total milk sale loss

9

91

 

Predicted milk sale losses due to quarantine (6 months) during CBPP outbreak in different herd sizes in Nakasongola district projected at 10% and 20% reduction of milk sales were as shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Predicted milk sale losses (USD) due to quarantine (6 months) due to CBPP in different herd sizes in Nakasongola district

Milk sales

Herd sizes

Small

Medium

Large

10% reduction

37

123

160

20% reduction

75

41

320

The frequency of market occurrence per month, number of cattle sold during bad and good seasons and amount of tax levied per head of cattle were as shown in Table 5.

Table 5: The frequency of market occurrence per month, number of cattle sold during bad and good seasons and amount of compounded tax (US Dollars) on 2010 rates levied per head of cattle

Group

District

Sub-County

Livestock Markets

Number of times per month

Sale seasons

turnover

Compounded levy (USD) per head of cattle

Good

Bad

Inland districts

 

Nakasongola

Wabinyonyi

Wabinyonyi

2

200

125

4

Nabiswera

Nakitoma

2

900

700

4

Nakaseke

Ngoma TC

Ngoma

4

500

300

6

International  borders

Kinyogoga

Kinyogoga

4

350

150

3

Isingiro

Mbaare

Bugango

4

250

120

2

 

Rwanseke

2

125

100

2

Rakai

Kibanda

Kamuli

4

225

75

3

Kakuuto

Kakuuto

4

180

125

4

Annual frequency and duration (months) of FMD and CBPP outbreaks from 2005-2010 were as shown in Tables 6 and 7 respectively.

Table 6: The number and duration in months of FMD outbreaks in the study districts from 2005-2010

District

Characteristics

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Nakasongola

Number of outbreaks

1

0

0

0

0

1

 

Duration of outbreak (months)

4

0

0

0

0

4

Nakaseke

Number of outbreaks

0

1

0

0

0

0

 

Duration of outbreak (months)

0

3

0

0

0

0

Isingiro

No. of outbreaks

1

3

3

1

1

3

 

Duration of outbreak (months)

9

6

12

6

4

12

Rakai

Number  of outbreaks

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Duration of outbreak (months)

0

0

0

0

0

0

There were more FMD outbreaks in Isingiro during the period under study (2005-2010). FMD outbreaks occurred twice in Nakasongola and once in Nakeseke in 2006 and the outbreak lasted for 3 months. While Rakai did not have any FMD and CBPP outbreaks during the period under study. Nakasongola was the district most affected by CBPP and it experienced four outbreaks within the period under study (2005-2010).

Table 7: The number and duration (months) of CBPP outbreaks in the study districts from 2005-2010

District

Characteristics

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Nakasongola

Number. of outbreaks

0

1

0

1

1

1

 

Duration of outbreak(s)

0

2

0

6

2

1

Nakaseke

Number of outbreaks

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Duration of outbreak(s)

0

0

0

0

0

0

Isingiro

Number of outbreaks

1

0

0

0

0

0

 

Duration of outbreak(s)

9

0

0

0

0

0

Rakai

Number of outbreaks

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Duration of outbreak(s)

0

0

0

0

0

0

The potential annual number of cattle that can be sold in the study markets and representative total off-take per district when there was no FMD and CBPP outbreaks were as shown in Table 8.

Table 8: Annual potential volume of cattle that could be sold per market and percentage off-take from two markets per district.

District

Market

Annual number of cattle sold

Off-take of  the total district herd (% )

Nakasongola

 

Wabinyoyi

4,500

 

 

11

Nakitoma

19,200

Subtotal

23,700

Nakaseke

 

Ngoma

19,200

 

 

19

Kinyogoga

12,000

Subtotal

31,200

Rakai

 

Kibanda

7,200

 

 

5

Kakuuto

7,320

Subtotal

14,520

 Isingiro

 

Bugango

8,880

 

 

4

Rwenseke

5,400

Subtotal

14,280

These results were based on information before 2005 when there was no outbreak for Isingiro. The total percentage potential off-take of the total district herd was very significantly higher (P<0.001) for the inland districts (14%) than the border districts (4%). The cattle density rates per square kilometer of land area are 45, 68, 147 and 60 heads of cattle per square kilometer for Nakasongola, Rakai, Nakaseke and Isingiro respectively. Among inland districts, Nakaseke had significantly higher (P<0.001) offtake than Nakasongola. The annual potential revenue which could be earned from cattle markets without FMD and CBPP outbreaks from 2006-2010 was as shown in Table 9.

Table 9: Annual potential revenue in US Dollars which could be earned from cattle markets without FMD and CBPP outbreaks from 2006-2010.

District

Sub-county

Market

Season

Annual income

Total income (2006-2010)

 

 

Nakasongola

 

Wabinyonyi

 

Wabinyoyi

Good

12,941

64,706

Bad

6,471

32,353

Subtotal

19,412

97,059

 

Nabiswera

Nabiswera

Good

46,588

232,941

Bad

36,235

181,177

Subtotal

82,824

414,118

 District subtotal

 

 

 

 

Nakaseke

 

Ngoma TC

 

Ngoma

Good

51,765

258,824

Bad

31,059

155,294

Subtotal

82,824

414,118

Kinyogoga

Kinyogoga

Good

23,059

115,294

Bad

9,882

49,412

Subtotal

32,941

164,706

 District subtotal

 

 

 

 

Rakai

Kibanda

Kamuli

Good

14,824

74,118

Bad

4,941

24,706

Subtotal

19,765

98,824

 

Kakuuto

 

Kakuuto

Good

16,941

84,706

Bad

11,765

58,824

Subtotal

28,706

143,529

District subtotal

 

 

 

 

Isingiro

 

 

 

Mbaare

 Bugango

Good

14,118

70,588

Bad

6,777

33,882

Subtotal

20,894

104,471

Rwenseke

Good

70,59

35,294

Bad

56,47

282,35

Subtotal

12,706

63,529

District subtotal

33,600

168,000

Grand total

300,071

1,500,353

The inland districts would earn very highly significant income (p<0.001), 73%  of  grand total potential income earned by all study districts as compared to districts along international borders, with Nakaseke and Nakasongola having a potential of earning 39% and 34% of the grand total earned by all study districts respectively (Table 9). Revenue earned from cattle markets with FMD and CBPP outbreaks from 2006-2010 were as shown in Table 10.

Table 10: Revenue earned in US Dollars from cattle markets with FMD and CBPP outbreaks from 2006 2010.

District

 

Year (outbreak status and income earned)

Nakasongola

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Total income (2006-2010)

Outbreak status

CBPP

None

CBPP

CBPP

FMD/CBPP

 

Total

53,922

102,235

0

53,922

53,922

264,000

Nakaseke

Outbreak status

No outbreak

FMD

No outbreak

No outbreak

No outbreak

Total

63529

115765

115765

115765

115765

526588

Isingiro

Outbreak status

FMD

FMD

FMD

FMD

FMD

Subtotal

0

0

0

0

0

0

Rakai

Outbreak status

No outbreak

No outbreak

No outbreak

No outbreak

No outbreak

Total

48471

48471

48471

48471

48471

242353

Total income

165,922

266,471

164,235

218,157

218,157

1,032,941

Nakasongola experienced a reduction of livestock market revenue of 48% and Nakaseke livestock market revenue reduced by only 9%. While, Rakai did not experience outbreaks during the period understudy and hence did not lose livestock market revenue. Isingiro experienced FMD outbreaks throughout the period under study which represented 100% loss of cattle market revenue of 100%. Table 11 presents details of revenue lost during FMD and CBPP outbreaks from 2006-2010.

Table 11: Revenue lost in US Dollars by cattle markets during FMD and CBPP outbreaks from 2006-2010

District

Year (outbreak status and income lost)

Total

Variable

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Nakasongola

Outbreak status

CBPP

No
outbreak

CBPP

CBPP

FMD/CBPP

Total

48,314

0

102,235

48,314

47,922

247,177

Nakaseke

Outbreak status

FMD

No
outbreak

No
outbreak

No
outbreak

No
outbreak

District subtotal

52,235

0

0

0

0

52,235

Isingiro

Outbreak

FMD

FMD

FMD

FMD

FMD

Bugango

20,894

20,894

20,894

20,894

20,894

Rwenseke

12,706

12,706

12,706

12,706

2,706

District subtotal

33,600

33,600

33,600

33,600

3,600

168,000

Rakai

Outbreak

No outbreak

No outbreak

No outbreak

No outbreak

No outbreak

Bad

0

0

0

0

0

Total

0

0

0

0

0

0

Grand total income lost

134,149

33,600

135,835

81,914

81,914

467,412

During the five year period under study, the districts along the international border incurred significantly less total income losses (P<0.001) of US Dollars $170,159 (47% of the grand total losses) as compared to $190,794 (53%) for the inland districts due to FMD/CBPP outbreaks. The relationship of income earned during FMD/CBPP outbreak and income lost were as shown in Figure 2. According to districts, the percentage losses incurred per district were as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 2. Relationship of total income (US Dollars) earned and lost due to FMD/CBPP outbreack from (2006-2010)

Figure 3. Percentage loss incurred due to FMD/CBPP outbreack during a 5 years period (2006-2010)

In a typical cattle slab in Nakasongola district, it was found that:

 

i)        Fifteen (15) head of cattle are slaughtered per week in the non-TAD outbreak periods.

ii)      Three (3) cattle are slaughtered per week during outbreak periods.

iii)    On average a kilogram of meat (beef) cost 7000/= during non-outbreak periods.

iv)     On average a kilogram of meat costs 1,500/= during outbreak periods.

v)      Other operational costs included the slaughter slab fee, butchery owner fee, transporter and local or parish chiefs.

vi)    Most of the costs like veterinary inspection, slaughter person and local government were paid an equivalent to the current price of 1kg of beef.

vii)  The gross margin earned by butcher owners per head of cattle computed as sum of gross earnings less costs incurred per head of cattle slaughtered.

 

The total income earned by each actor per month during outbreaks and non-outbreak periods in the meat processing chain were as shown in Table 12.

Table 12: Total income in US Dollars earned by each actor per district per cow per day/week /month during outbreaks and non-outbreak periods in the meat processing chain in Nakasongola district.

Actor

Per day

Per month

Percentage reduction
of income

With outbreak

Without outbreak

With
outbreak

Without outbreak

Weighing scale owner

2

41

42

988

96

Local government

2

41

42

988

96

Veterinary inspectors

2

41

42

988

96

Public health inspector

2

41

42

988

96

Slaughter man /moslem

2

41

42

988

96

Other operational costs

2

20

47

471

90

Butchery workers

1

71

14

1,694

99

Gross margin per meat processor (butcher owner)

35

618

847

14,824

94

Total

46

918

1120

21,929

95

The total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced to 95% during outbreaks i.e. from $21,929 earned during the non-outbreak periods to $1,120) during the outbreaks (Table 12).


Discussion

At farm level, FMD outbreaks caused significant financial losses due to salvage sale of cattle and loss from no or reduced milk sales during quarantine periods. In Isingiro, FMD caused significant losses due to salvage sale loss (Table 2). Bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value respectively; amounting to USD 196 for small cattle herd farms and USD 1553 for medium herd sized farms annually. However, no cattle were salvage sold in the large herds. This was because farmers with large herds could organize to sell their cattle to the traders or transporters directly from the farm during and soon after FMD outbreaks.

 

In Isingiro, FMD caused losses to cattle farmers due to no milk sales during periods when the cattle were clinically sick or reduced sales during the quarantine periods. Most milk losses (91%) were due to reduction of milk sales during quarantine period (Table 3). The farmers with large herds felt more impact of FMD due to loss of milk marketing opportunities caused by FMD during quarantine periods (Table 3).

 

From what has been observed (Tables 2 and 3), it is apparent that the poor farmers with small and medium herds were most affected by FMD outbreaks in Isingiro. They lost both from salvage sale of live cattle and loss due to reduced opportunity to sell milk during quarantine periods.

 

CBPP outbreaks confined to Nakasongola caused 10-20% milk sales reduction due to quarantine leading to loss on average of USD 105 to USD 209 (Table 4) for a six month quarantine period. No salvage losses were experienced due to CBPP outbreaks because animals could be sold when they were in a good condition.

 

Inland districts earned more income from cattle markets than the international border districts (Tables 9 and 10). This was due to the endemic state of FMD outbreaks in the Isingiro where due to quarantine imposed the cattle markets had been permanently closed throughout the study period. However, a situation could even occur when livestock markets at international border could be closed whenever FMD outbreak was reported on either side of the border. This was true if the outbreak was reported on the Tanzanian side. This was done to stop farmers and cattle traders from Tanzania from informally bringing their cattle for sale in the markets in Uganda. Hence farmers in international border districts suffered consequences of market closure due to these diseases more than the inland districts. While, in inland districts cattle markets were only closed whenever these diseases were reported in their areas.

 

The high income earned from the cattle markets could also be explained by large offtake rates reported along the inland districts (Table 8). For example, Nakaseke had a potential to sell highest number of cattle (31,200 heads of cattle) in their cattle market (equivalent to herd offtake of 19%) as compared to Nakasongola which sold 23,700 heads of cattle (equivalent to 11% herd offtake annually). This was in contrast to  border districts, with Rakai having a potential of selling 5% of their herds and Isingiro 4%) of their herds (Table 9). This showed that inland districts were keeping cattle for commercial purposes where border districts were keeping cattle more for subsistence functions.

 

Among inland districts, the higher off-take rate reported in Nakaseke than Nakasongola was attributed to the fact that the main market livestock market in Nakaseke (Ngoma) took place weekly (Table 5) as compared to the main livestock market in Nakasongola (Nakitoma) which took place on bi-weekly basis.

 

Cattle marketing losses due to FMD and CBPP outbreaks were higher in the inland districts than in the international border districts. This could be because inland districts sold higher volumes of cattle and had higher off-take rates than the international districts hence when markets were closed, they had to suffer more. Among the international border districts, Isingiro lost more cattle market revenues because the markets were closed for the whole 5 years of the retrospective study period as compared to Rakai which lost no revenue (Table 11 and Figures 2 and 3).

 

There was 31% in reduction in revenue from cattle markets in the study area during the study period 2006-2010, of which 52% of the losses were incurred in Nakasongola district mainly due to CBPP, 36% in Isingiro district due to FMD and 11% in Nakaseke due to FMD (Tables 9, 10 and 11). About 49% of losses (USD 223,216) were attributed to CBPP outbreaks in Nakasongola and 52% of losses (USD 244,215) was due FMD outbreaks in Isingiro (2006-2010), Nakaseke in 2007 and Nakasongola in 2010 (Tables 6 and 7).

 

Losses in Nakasongola were due to CBPP outbreaks with only one outbreak being shared with FMD in 2010 (Table 6 and 7). The only losses which occurred in Nakaseke were due to FMD in 2006. Meanwhile in Isingiro the losses due to TADS were due to FMD which occurred throughout the study period (2006-2010) and the quarantine period continued beyond the study.

 

However, CBPP outbreak last occurred in Isingiro in 2005 and it had not re-occurred since then. This seems to suggest that this disease could have been controlled in Isingiro. Rakai did not report outbreak for both FMD and CBPP during the period under study (Tables 6 and 7). The absence of the two diseases and particularly the absence of FMD in Rakai when the neighboring Isingiro district and bordering Tanzania districts experience FMD frequently can be explained by the presence of adequate and functional disease control infrastructure including quarantine stations and holding grounds that are lacking in Isingiro. Overall, FMD affected more districts and caused slightly more impact than CBPP (Table 6 and 7). This calls for active vaccination of cattle against FMD in all the study sites.

 

Among the local actors at the meat processing level at Nakasongola 90%-99% of revenue earned per actor was lost during FMD and CBPP outbreaks (Table 12). This meant that all the actors who solely depended on meat processing completely lost their means of livelihood during FMD and CBPP outbreaks.


Conclusion


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Received 12 July 2014; Accepted 19 August 2014; Published 5 September 2014

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