Livestock Research for Rural Development 26 (8) 2014 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Evaluation of pre-weaning growth performances and survival rate of Western Highland goats under traditional management system in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Demissie Chanie, Zeleke Mekuriaw1 and Mengistie Taye2

Mertule Mariam Agricultural Technical Vocational Educational Training College,
PO. Box 01, Merule Mariam, Ethiopia
1International Livestock Research institute (ILRI) LIVES Project,
P.O. Box 1867, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
mekuriawzeleke@gmail.com
2Bahir Dar University, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences,
P.O. Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Abstract

The study was conducted in Enebse Sar Midir district of East Gojam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia, to evaluate the growth performance and survival rate of kids. The study was carried out on 60 western highland kids owned by farmers in the area. Body weight of kids was measured and recorded from birth to 60 days at 10 days interval using a spring balance.

The overall mean birth weight and weight at 60 days were found to be 2.40.08 kg and 70.18 kg, respectively. The overall mean daily weight gain from birth to 60 days of age was 72.72.3 g. Kids born from the second and above parity does, single born kids and male kids were heavier (p<0.001) than kids from first parity does, twin born kids and female kids, respectively. Single born and male kids had higher (P<0.001) average daily weight gains compared to twin born and female kids. Kids born from first parity does had significantly lower (P<0.01) average daily weight gains than kids born from second and above parity does. The overall survival rate of kids recorded in this study was 91.5%. The survival rate of kids was significantly affected by parity of the dam and type of birth. Kids born from first parity dams and twin born kids had the lowest survival rate. First parity does performed the lowest almost in all the traits considered which calls for differential feeding management for first parity does before and after kidding. Similarly, twin kidding dams need to be fed with additional quality feed to improve milk yield and consequently the survival and growth rate of their kids.

Key words: birth weight, daily weight gain, parity, sex, type of birth


Introduction

Goats have worldwide acceptance and recognition due to their special merits such as high reproductive rate (Peacock 2005), smaller space requirement and, ability to produce milk and meat (Tilahun Sahilu and Goestseh 2005).

Western highland goat is one of the breeds widely reared in the highlands of Ethiopia (FARM Africa 1996). According to FARM Africa (1996), this breed of goat is characterized as relatively tall, with a concave facial profile. There is relatively high proportion of polled goats in the Western Highland population (14%), which is related to hermaphroditism.

Birth weight and weaning weight are economically important traits in livestock production (Deribe and Taye 2013a) affecting the profitability of the farm. The economic value of goat depends up on its growth performance as it determines the meat producing ability up-to marketable age (Singh et al 2002).

Rapid growth during the early period can minimize the cost of rearing and thus provide more profit to the farmers. The birth weight and early growth rate of animals are determined not only by genetic potential but also by maternal and environmental factors (Mandal et al 2006). The objective of this research was to evaluate the pre-weaning growth performance and survival of Western highland kids under traditional management condition.


Materials and methods

Study area

The study was conducted in Enebsie Sar Midir district, East Gojjam Zone of Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. The district town (Mertule Mariam) is found 370 km northeast direction from Addis Ababa and 180 km southeast from Bahir Dar (the regional capital city). The district is located at 100 52' North latitude and 380 17' East longitudes and at an average altitude of 2650 meters above sea level.. It has an average annual rainfall of 1053 mm (941 mm - 1203 mm) and temperature of 23.6 OC (22.5 OC – 25.0 OC) (Agri-service Ethiopia, 2004; WFEDO, 2010). Even though the district has mono-modal rainfall pattern which usually starts around June and stops in September, there is a chance of getting little shower rain from February to April. According to the WAO (2012), the livestock population of the district is 60,618 cattle, 20,020 sheep, 32,628 goats, 14,479 equines, and 31,114 poultry. Generally, the rainfall pattern in the area is inconsistent and inadequate particularly for long season crops. The livelihood of the community in the area is heavily dependent on crop and livestock production and the farmers in the area are practicing mixed farming system.

Data source and management

Data on growth of kids was collected for two months period. To undertake this monitoring activity, goats with later stage of pregnancy were selected purposively with the assistance of development agents.

Data collected includes birth weight of kids, type of birth, sex of kids, and parity of does. The birth weights of the kids were taken within 24 hours of kidding using a spring balance. The subsequent weights of kids were taken at 10- days-interval. The body weight measurement was taken early in the morning before the kids are allowed to suckle their dams and let for browsing. In addition to this, death of kids was recorded throughout the monitoring period.

Data analysis

Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 16) was used to analyze the data. Response variables used were birth weight and daily weight gain. Survival rate was calculated as number of kids survived during monitoring period divided by number of kids born, multiplied by 100.

The following model was used:

Yijk = μ + Si + Bj + Pk + εijk

Where:

Yijk = observation (birth weight, average daily weight gain) on the nth kid of the ith sex and the jth birth type born in the kth parity

μ = the overall mean common to all animals in the study

Si = fixed effects of the ith sex (1=male, 2=female)

Bj = fixed effects of the jth birth type (1= single, 2= twin)

Pk = fixed effects of the kth parity (p= 1, 2, 3 4, 5,)

Εijk = is the random error


Results and discussion

Birth Weight

The overall mean birth weight of western highland goats in the current study was 2.40.08 kg, which is in line with the report of Tesfaye Tsegaye (2009), who indicated that the birth weight of goats at Metema district of North Gondar Zone was 2.28 0.04 kg. However, it is lower than the report of Zeleke Mekuriaw (2007), who indicated the birth weight of Somali goats at Alemaya University to be 3.19 kg. In contrast, Wondwosen Kebede (2007) and Deribe and Taye (2013a), reported the mean birth weight of Dalocha and Abergele goats to be 1.64 0.08 kg and 1.91 0.04 kg, respectively which is lower than this reports.

Birth weight is strongly influenced by breed, sex of kid, birth type, age of the dam, feeding conditions, season of birth and production system (Banerjee et al 2000; Tesfaye Tsegaye 2009). As indicated in Table 1, birth weight of goats in the current study was affected by parity, birth type and sex of kids. Does that gave birth for the first time yielded kids of significantly lower (p<0.001) birth weight than those does that gave birth for second, third, fourth and fifth time. This may be due to the higher body weight of does from the later parity and better mothering ability than the first parity. The higher energy requirement of first party does for their growth in addition to neonatal growth can also justify their inferiority. Single born kids were significantly heavier (P<0.001) at birth (2.57 0.18 kg) than twin born kids (2.32 0.08 kg) which may be due to competition for nutrient and space from their dam before birth in the case of twin births. With regard to sex, male kids were found to be significantly heavier (p<0.001) at birth (2.50 0.10 kg) than females (2.3 0.11 kg). This may be due to the presence of androgen in males which stimulates skeletal growth. This is in agreement with many previous works (Zeleke Mekuriaw 2007; Tesfaye Tsegaye 2009; Deribe and Taye 2013a; Deribe and Taye 2013b).


Table 1 : The least squares mean SE of birth weight and weight at two months of age of central highland goats

Factors

N

Birth weight

N

Weight at 60 days

Overall

60

2.40 0. 08

52

7.000.16

Parity

***

***

1

13

1.680.13b

7

5.87 0.70b

2

14

2.610.14a

13

7.63 0.32a

3

8

2.710.13a

8

7.18 0.07a

4

10

2.490.18a

9

7.74 0.07a

5

15

2.590.14a

15

6.45 0.07b

Type of birth

***

***

Single

18

2.570.18

17

7.75 0.40

Twine

42

2.320.08

35

6.64 0.17

Sex

***

**

Male

26

2.500.10

24

7.16 0 .28

Female

34

2.300.11

28

6.86 0.25

*** P< 0.001; ab means with different letter within the same column are significantly different at the indicated level;
N= number of observations

Growth rate

The average daily weight gain of monitored kids in Enebse Sar Midir district is presented in Table 2. The overall mean average daily weight gain of kinds in this study was 72.7 2.3g, which is in line with the result of Wondwosen Kebede (2007), who indicated that mean daily weight gain over the 12 weeks period (pre-weaning) estimated to be around 70g and is relatively higher than body weight gain of 61. 25g/ day reported by Zeleke Mekuriaw (2007).

As indicated in Table 2, average daily weight gain of kids was affected by parity, birth type and sex of kids. Kids born from first parity had lower (P<0.01) average daily weight gain (65.7 4.9g) than kids from second and above parity does. Single born kids were significantly heavier (P<0.001) in their average daily weight gain (82.8 4.4g) than twin born kids (68.2 2.2g) which may be due to their difference in weight at birth. Average daily weight gain of males were heavier (p<0.01), (74.2 3.6g) than females (71.4 2.9g). This is in agreement with previous works (Zeleke Mekuriaw 2007; Tesfaye Tsegaye 2009; Deribe and Taye 2013a).


Table 2: Effect of different factors on Average Daily Weight Gain of western highland goats

Factors

N

ADWG
(Mean S.E. mean)

Parity

**

1

7

65.7 4.9bc

2

13

80.4 5.3a

3

8

73.4 4.9ab

4

9

85.0 3.9a

5

15

63.2 3.2c

Type of birth

***

Single

17

82.8 4.4

Twine

35

68.2 2.2

Sex

**

Male

24

74.2 3.6

Female

28

71.4 2.9

Overall

52

72.7 2.3

*** P< 0.001; **P< 0.01; abc means with different letter within the same column are significantly different at the indicated level; N= Number of observations; ADWG= Average daily weight gain

Survival rate of kids in Enebse Sar Midir district

Parity of doe and birth type affected survival of kids (Table 3). Kids born from first parity does had the lowest survival rate than kids from the rest parity does. This might be due to too early age at first mating under uncontrolled traditional breeding system. This imposes nutrient partition for the growth of dam and fetus resulting in low birth weight and resulted in low survival. In addition, first parity does may not produce enough amount of milk to nurse their kids. Twin born kids had lower survival rate than their single born counterparts which might be due to their low birth weight and insufficient milk. The result is in line with the report of Zeleke (2007) for Somali goats.

Table 3: Survival of western highland goats in Enebse Sar Midir area

Factors N Survival to
60 days age (%)

Parity

1

13

54.9

2

14

95.9

3

8

100

4

10

94.0

5

15

100

Type of birth

Single

18

100

Twine

42

81.4

Sex

NS

Male

26

92.2

Female

34

90.8


Conclusion


Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Mertule Mariam ATVET College for providing different facilities for the field work. We are also thankful to small ruminant owners in Enebse Sar Midir district for providing their goat freely for monitoring work


References

Agri-Service Ethiopia 2004 Base Line Survey Analysis Report, Unpublished. Enebsie Sar Midr Integrated Food Security Program (IFSP). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Pp. 8-16.

Banerjee A, Getachew A and Ewnetu E 2000 Selection and breeding strategies for increased productivity of goats in Ethiopia. In: R.C. Merkel, G. Abebe and A.L. Goetsch , The Opportunities and Challenges of Enhancing Goat Production in East Africa ,Proceedings of a conference held at Debub University, Awassa, Ethiopia from November 10 to 12, 2000. E (Kika) de la Garza Institute for Goat Research, Langston University, Langston, pp. 70-79.

Deribe B and Taye M 2013a Evaluation of Growth Performance of Abergelle Goats under Traditional Management Systems in Sekota District, Ethiopia. Pakistan J. Biolog. Sci., 16(14), 692-696.

Deribe B and Taye M 2013b Growth performance and carcass characteristics of central highland goats in Sekota District, Ethiopia. Agricultural Advances 2(8): 250-258.

FARM-Africa 1996 Goat Types of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Physical description and management systems. Published jointly by FARM-Africa, London, UK, and ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute). Nairobi. Kenya., 76 pp.

Mandal A, Neser F, Rout P and Notter D 2006 Estimation of direct and maternal (co)variance components for pre-weaning growth traits in Muzaffarnagari sheep. Livest. Sci. 99:79–89.

Peacock C 2005 Goats- A pathway out of poverty. Small Ruminant Research 60:179-186.

Singh S, Rana Z S and Dalal D S 2002 Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting growth performance in goats Indian J. Anim. Res. 36(1): 12-16.

Tesfaye T 2009 Characterization of goat production systems and on- farm evaluation of the growth performance of grazing goats supplemented with different protein sources in metema woreda, Amhara region, Ethiopia. MSc Thesis, University of Haramaya, Ethiopia, 81 pp.

Tilahun S and Goetsch A 2005 A foresight on goat research. Small Ruminant Research 60: 7-12.

WAO (Woreda Agriculture Office) 2012 Livestock Censes of Enebsie Sar Midr Woreda, unpublished. Mertule Mariam, East Gojam Zone, Ethiopia.

WFEDO (Woreda Finance and Economic Development Office) 2010 Annual Statistical Bulletin of Enebsie Sar Midr Woreda, Unpublished. Mertule Mariam, East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia.

Wondwosen K 2007 Husbandry practices of goats in Dalocha Woreda, Southern Ethiopia. MSc Thesis, University of Haramaya, Ethiopia, 97 pp.

Zeleke Mekuriaw Zeleke 2007 Environmental influences on pre-weaning growth performances and mortality rates of extensively managed Somali goats in Eastern Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 19, Article #186. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/12/zele19186.htm


Received 10 February 2014; Accepted 19 July 2014; Published 1 August 2014

Go to top