Livestock Research for Rural Development 26 (11) 2014 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Replacing soybean meal with processed Lupin (Lupinus Albus) meal as poultry layers feed

Gebremedhn Beyene, Negassi Ameha1, Mengistu Urge1 and Awet Estifanos2

College of Agriculture and Natural resource Sciences, Department of Animal Science,
P.O.Box 445, Debre Berhan University
gebremedhnb@yahoo.com
1College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, School of Animal and Range Sciences, Haramaya University,
P.O.Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
2Tigray Agricultural Research Institute,
P.O.Box 492, Mekelle, Tigray

Abstract

A study was conducted to evaluate effects of replacing Processed Lupin Meal (PLM) for soybean meal (SBM) as protein ingredient on feed intake, body weight gain, egg production and quality, feed conversion efficiency, and profitability for a period of 90 days. A total of 150 birds with uniform body weight and age were randomly allocated to five treatments. Treatments were SBM replaced by PLM at a proportion of 0 (PLM0), 25 (PLM25), 50 (PLM50), 75 (PLM75) and 100% (PLM100) within the ration formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous.  

 

Except the egg yolk color, replacing SBM with PLM did not affect egg production and quality parameters. Feed cost decreased with increasing level of PLM. It is therefore concluded that all levels of replacement of SBM with PLM in a layer diet did not affect production and quality parameters. However, it had a significant reduction in egg production cost of white leghorn layers.  Therefore, replacing SBM with PLM reduces cost of production and improves poultry egg productivity.

Key words: egg quality, local feed source, poultry production, white leghorn


Introduction

Poultry production is gaining popularity in the developing countries due to its role in bridging the protein deficiency, economic empowerment of the resource poor segment of different societies and its ability to fit well in the farming systems commonly practiced (King’ori 2011 ). The proportion of feed cost in poultry production has been increasing because of the volatility of the feed market and stiff competition for feed resources between human and animal feed industry (Yegani 2009 ). The most appropriate strategy for developing countries is likely to be the development of dietary formulations, which allow locally available ingredients to be used as substitution for traditional feed ingredients to reduce feed costs (Jurgen et al 1998).

 

One of the feed resources that can be used as alternative poultry protein feed source is lupin (Lupinus albus) since it is produced locally and relatively low cost ingredient compared to major protein sources. Lupin belongs to the family Leguminosae. Lupin is a good source of nutrients, not only proteins but also lipids, dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins (Zielinska et al 2008). However, lupin has high alkaloid content which results in characteristically bitter taste making the crop unacceptable for food/feed (Martini et al 2008). It is therefore, essential to reduce anti nutritional factors and utilize this resource as livestock feed.

 

Although shortage of protein sources limit livestock production in Ethiopia, the contribution of lupin as livestock feed has remained negligible. Therefore, the effect of lupins substitution to soybean on the performance of layers in Ethiopia seems to be economical and applicable. However, there is limitation of information regarding substituting it for other feed ingredients in the diet of poultry in the country. The current study is therefore designed to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal with processed lupin meal on egg production and quality of white leghorn layers and determine the cost implications of the two feed ingredients.


Materials and methods

Experimental design and treatments

 

Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments replicated three times was used. Treatments were substitution of roasted, soaked, and coarsely ground lupin meal (PLM) for soybean meal at the rate of 0% (PLM0), 25% (PLM25), 50% (PLM50), 75% (PLM75) and 100% (PLM100) level. The experiment started with 10 pullets per replication.

 

Feed preparation

 

Whole lupin grain was processed by roasting on metal pan at average roasting plate surface temperature of 145ºC for an average of 12 minutes. Then the grain was soaked in a bucket of tap water (1:10 ratio) and was changed every 2 hours (6 times a day) for five days. After soaking, the grain was allowed to dry in sunshine for two days and was coarsely ground to lupin grits (Yilkal 2011; Paulos 2009). All the ingredients except wheat short and vitamin premix were hammer-milled to 5 mm sieve size. The five treatment  rations  were  formulated  to  be iso-caloric  and  iso-nitrogenous with  2800 - 2900 kcal  ME/kg  DM  and  16 - 17%  CP (NRC 1994)  to  meet  the  nutrient requirements of layers. Ingredients and diets analysis were according to proximate analysis method (AOAC 1990). Metabolisable energy (ME) of the experimental diets was determined by indirect method of the formula given by Wiseman (1987) as follows:
ME (Kcal/kg DM) = 3951 + 54.4 EE – 88.7 CF – 40.8 Ash


Table 1. Proportion of ingredients (%) used in formulating the experimental rations

Ingredients            

Treatment diets

PLM0

PLM25

PLM50

PLM75

PLM100

Maize

38

38

38

38

38

Wheat short

19.7

19.7

19.7

19.7

19.7

Soybean meal

10

7.5

5

2.5

0

PLM

0

2.5

5

7.5

10

Noug seed cake

23

23

23

23

23

Limestone

8

8

8

8

8

Salt

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Vitamin premix

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

Total

100

100

100

100

100

PLM=Processed Lupin Meal

Management of experimental birds

 

The experiment was conducted at Haramaya University poultry farm for a period of 90 days with 7 days of adaptation to experimental diet and house. Before starting of the actual experiment, the experimental pens, watering and feeding troughs, laying nests were thoroughly cleaned, disinfected and sprayed against external parasites. The experiment used 150 white leghorn breed of hens at seven months of age. The birds were kept on deep litter housing system covered with teff straw of 10 cm depth with their individual laying nest per replicate. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the experiment. Vitamins (1g of Aminovit = 5 liter) were given through tap water according to the manufacturers recommendation.  Amprolium powder 20% (12 g per 20 Liter), were given for 5 - 7 days through drinking water to the birds as a preventive and treatment agent against coccidosis disease. Oxytetracycline powder 20% was also given through tap water (0.5 g per 1 Liter) for 5 - 7 days to increase resistance of birds to disease and stress of moving at the beginning of the experiment. The poultry house was supplied with artificial light for 16 hours a day from the starting to end of the study.

 

Hen and egg parameters

 

Laying hens’ body weight was obtained at the start and end of the experiment. Feed intake was recorded daily by replicate. Feed conversion efficiency was calculated as gram of egg per gram of feed. Eggs were collected daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis. Eggs collected daily were weighed immediately after laying and average egg weight was calculated.

 

Eggs were examined for interior quality. Shell thickness (without shell membrane) of the eggs was measured by micrometer gauge. Shell thickness was a mean value of measurements at 3 locations on the eggs (air cell, equator, and sharp end). The components of egg (albumen, yolk, and shell) were measured by weekly breakouts on 3 eggs per replicate for 8 weeks. Their weights were measured by sensitive balance of 0.005 - 3 kg capacity, whereas albumen and yolk heights were measured by tripod micrometer. Haugh unit was determined and yolk color was evaluated by the Roche yolk color fan.

 

Partial budget analysis

 

To estimate the economic benefits of the replacement PLM for soybean meal in layers ration, the partial budget developed by Upton (91979) was employed. To calculate feed cost for each treatment, the cost of feed ingredient used was recorded at purchase and the feed consumed by birds was multiplied by the cost of the ingredient. Cost of labor for processing of lupin was also considered. The sale price of eggs at Haramaya University during the period of the experiment was used for calculation of total return.

 

Statistical analysis

 

The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS computer software version 9.1.3 (SAS 2008). When the analysis of variance indicated the existence of significant difference between treatment means, tukey’s student range test (HSD) method was used to locate the treatment means that were significantly different from the other.


Results and discussion

Chemical composition of ingredients and experimental rations

 

The results showed that soybean and lupin are rich in protein content with almost similar protein value (38.5 and 36.5, respectively) that make lupin to be a protein feed and good potential substitute for soybean in poultry rations. The protein content of lupin reported by Yilkal (2011) and Gebru (2009) was 36.8% and 38.5%, respectively which is comparable value with that obtained for lupin used in the current experiment. The fiber content of lupin reported by (Shimelis 2010) is 10.08%, which is comparable with the value in the current experiment. Values of DM, EE and ash are similar with that reported by previous authors.

 

The crude protein, metabolizable energy and calcium contents of treatment rations were comparable. This is may be due to similar CP, EE and calcium contents of lupin and soybean. The CP, ME  and calcium levels were within the ranges of the recommended levels of 16 - 17%, 2800 - 2900 kcal/kg and 2.5 - 3.5%, respectively to meet the nutrient requirements of layers (NRC 1994; Eekeren et al 2006).

Table 2. Chemical composition of feed ingredients and treatment diets

Feed ingredients

Treatments

Chemical component

Maize

Wheat short

PLM

Soya bean meal

Noug seed cake

PLM0

PLM25

PLM50

PLM75

PLM100

DM(%)

90.3

90.5

91.0

93.2

92.6

92.1

92.0

92.0

91.9

91.8

CP(%DM) (%DM)

8.46

15.0

36.5

38.5

29.4

16.8

16.7

16.7

16.6

16.6

EE(%DM) (%DM)

11.8

3.32

8.00

8.89

8.00

7.85

7.83

7.81

7.79

7.76

Ash(%DM) (%DM)

3.89

5.00

3.50

7.98

8.90

5.31

5.20

5.08

4.97

4.86

CF(%DM) (%DM)

2.94

9.82

8.00

6.25

18.00

7.82

7.86

7.90

7.95

7.99

Ca(%DM) (%DM)

0.02

0.19

0.27

0.35

0.35

3.36

3.36

3.36

3.36

3.35

P (%DM)

0.92

0.78

0.35

0.83

0.32

0.66

0.65

0.64

0.62

0.61

ME(kcal/kg)

3595

3057

3534

3555

2427

2881

2881

2881

2880

2879

DM = Dry Matter; CP = Crude Protein; EE = Ether Extract; CF = Crude Fiber; Ca= Calcium; P= Phosphorus; ME = Metabolizable Energy;
PLM =Processed Lupin Meal

Dry matter intake

 

Substitution of PLM for soybean meal at all levels in layers ration had no significant effect on average daily dry matter intake (Table 3). This may be because of the similar protein and energy content of the treatment diets. The major dietary factor that affects feed intake is energy concentration of the diet (Smith 2001). The current result agrees with Vogt et al (1987) who reported no significant effect on replacement of 50% soybean meal with lupin meal on feed intake. The findings of this study disagree with that of Karunajeewa and Barlett (1985) who found that replacement of 100% of white lupin in the broiler diet instead of soybean meal caused low performance in terms of feed intake.

 

Body weight change

 

There was no significant difference in initial, final and daily body weights among the treatments. This appears to be a consequence of similar intakes of DM and nutrients among treatments. The present experiment failed to agree with the finding of Karunajeewa and Barlett (1985) who found that replacement of 100% of white lupin in the broiler diet instead of soybean meal caused low performance in terms of body weight gain.

 

Egg production

 

There was no difference in hen-day (HDEP) and hen-housed (HHEP) egg production by substitution of different levels of PLM to SBM. The present experiment agrees with the result of Vogt et al (1987) who reported that up to 50% replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal did not caused any negative effect on the laying rate. The overall mean HDEP and HHEP in the present experiment were similar with the mean for this breed in the same farm reported by Senayt (2011) and  Wubu Taye (2011), who recorded HDEP of 58.5 1.22% and 59.3 2.5 and HHEP of 58.0 1.21% and 56.6 2.9, respectively.

 

Egg weight and egg mass

 

There was no difference in egg weight and egg mass among the treatments (Table 3). This agrees with Vogt et al (1987) who reported that about 50% of the soybean meal used in rations for layers was substituted by lupin meal without any negative effect on egg weight. Amaefule et al (2007) noted no significant differences  among the layers fed boiled and soaked pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seed meal and control diets in egg mass. Fakhraei et al (2010) noted that egg mass followed the same trend as egg production, and the same trend has been seen in the present study as well.

 

Feed conversion efficiency

 

The feed conversion efficiency did not differ significantly among treatments (Table 3). As Vogt et al (1987) reported about 50% of the SBM used in rations for layers was substituted by lupin meal without any negative effect on feed conversion efficiency. (Hirnik  et al 1977) noted that the variation in feed conversion efficiency is highly dependent on the number of eggs produced (by 51%) followed by feed consumption (31%) and egg weight (18%). Since the variation in egg production and feed consumption among treatments did not exist in this study, a difference in feed conversion efficiency was not expected.

 

Egg quality parameters

 

Egg shell weight and thickness

 

The result showed non-significant difference among treatments in egg shell weight and thickness. Similarly, Senkoylu et al (2005) found the same result for eggshell thickness among hens fed diets consisting different levels (0, 10, 16, and 22%) of dietary full fat SBM.

 

Albumen weight, height and haugh unit

 

All the treatments showed similar results for albumen weight, height and Haugh unit (HU) among treatments. The result agreed with that of Vogt et al (1987) who reported no significant effect of replacement of 50% soybean meal with lupin meal on albumen weight. However, the current result disagrees with that of Vogt et al (1987) who reported increased albumen height when 50% soybean meal was replaced with lupin meal. As documented by William (1992), albumen quality is not greatly influenced by nutrition, but decline in HU is mostly related to age of the hen and egg storage conditions. Layers used in the present experiment were in their first year of production, and the eggs used for quality analysis were fresh. Thus, a difference in HU as a result of layer and egg age is not expected. The higher the height of the albumen, the greater the HU and the better the quality of the egg. In this study, all treatments scored HU within the recommended range of 70 - 100, which is an indication of good egg quality (Lewko and Ornowicz 2009).

 

Egg yolk weight, height, diameter and index

 

There was no significant  difference in yolk weight, yolk height, diameter and index among treatments. The yolk index values of the eggs from all treatment groups in the present experiment were 0.43, which is within the accepted range of 0.33 - 0.50 for fresh eggs (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy 1985). Similar to the present study, Amaefule et al (2007) reported lack of significant  difference in yolk height, yolk index and yolk weight between birds fed boiled pigeon pea seed meal and the control diets.

 

Egg yolk color

 

The increased yellow color intensity of yolk at higher level of PLM as replaced by SBM could be attributed to higher beta-carotene content of the PLM than SBM. Similarly, Watkins and Mirosh 1987 reported good egg yolk color score for lupin. The roche color fan number of 7 to 8 (deeper yellow color) is appreciated by consumers in most areas (Leeson and Summers 1997). The result of the present study showed a higher level of yolk color closer to the accepted range for PLM as compared to feeding SBM.


Table 3. Dry matter intake, body weight gain and egg laying performance of white leghorn hens fed ration containing different levels of PLM as a replacement for soybean meal

Treatments

PLM0

PLM25

PLM50

PLM75

PLM100

SEM

SL

Parameters

DMI (g/bird/day)

90.0

 90.3

90.5

90.7

 91.0

 0.35

ns

Initial BW (g/bird)

1006

1021

1027

1015

1025

 4.89

ns

Final BW (g/bird)

1146

1152

1156

1142

1160

 6.50

ns

BW gain (g/bird)

140

131

129

127

  135

 2.50

ns

AD gain (g/bird)

0.16

 0.15

0.14

0.14

 0.15

0.0028 

ns

Total egg/hen

51.7

 52.3

53.1

55.6

 55.2

 2.78

ns

HDEP (%)

58.6

 58.8

59.0

61.8

 61.3

 2.76

ns

HHEP (%)

57.5

 57.8

59.0

61.8

 61.3 

 2.94

ns

Egg weight (g)

50.4

 50.3

50.2

50.0

 49.7

 0.14

ns

EM (g/hen/day)

29.6

 29.6

29.6

31.0

 30.5

 1.35

ns

FCE (g egg /g feed)

0.27

 0.28

0.28

0.29

 0.29

0.014

ns

ns=non- significant (P > 0.05); SL=significant level; BW = body weight; DMI = dry matter intake; EM = egg mass; FCE=feed conversion efficiency; HDEP = hen–day egg production; HHEP = hen-housed egg production; SEM = standard error of mean

Partial budget analysis

 

The economic returns in terms of partial budget analysis from egg sale and commercial feed costs are presented in Table 4. The data indicated that net return increased with increasing dietary level of PLM in the ration of White Leghorn layers. Complete (100%) replacement of SBM with PLM had higher net return than all other treatments. Therefore, the replacement of SBM with PLM is profitable because of the similar egg production but lower cost of the lupin as compared to soybean meal.


Table 4. Economics of replacing soybean meal with PLM

 

Treatments

PLM0

PLM25

PLM50

PLM75

PLM100

Total feed consumed (kg)

  287

  291

  295

  297

  300

Total feed cost/ treatment (birr)

1862

1751

1637

1515

1391

Labor cost (for processing) (birr)

 0.00

 37.0

 75.0

  114

  153

TVC (birr)

1862

1788

1712

1629

1544

Total egg produced

1551

1569

1594

1669

1656

Gross income (TR)(birr)

3102

3138

3188

3338

3312

Net income ( NI) (birr)

1241

1350

1477

1710

1768

∆TR (birr)

-

 36.0

 86.0

  236

  210

∆TVC (birr)

-

-73.8

 -150

 -233

-318

∆NR (birr)

-

109.8

   236

  469

  528

MRR (%)

-

  -149

  -157

 -201

-166

Birr is Ethiopian currency; egg sale = 2 birr/egg; T = Treatment; ∆TVC = Change in Total Variable Cost; NI=Net Income;  ∆TR= Change in Total Revenue; ∆NR=Change in Net Revenue; MRR = Marginal Rate of Return


Conclusion


Acknowledgements

We would like to extent our acknowledgement to Ethiopian Ministry of Education for covering all costs to undertake this piece of work. The authors are very grateful to Haramaya University poultry farm and Animal Nutrition and Soil Laboratory crew for the support and cooperation in providing poultry farm facilities and undertaking laboratory analysis and day to day assistance.


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Received 17 August 2014; Accepted 19 October 2014; Published 3 November 2014

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