Livestock Research for Rural Development 24 (3) 2012 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

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A developmental strategy for consumer buying - choices of goat milk kefir in East Java

Imam Thohari, Hari Purnomo, Liliek Eka Radiati and Zaenal Fanani*

Department of Animal Product Technology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry,
Brawijaya University, Jalan Veteran 65145 Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia.
* Department of Social Economics, Faculty of Animal Husbandry,
Brawijaya University, Jalan Veteran 65145 Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia.


Goat milk kefir consumers were found to be mostly females (59.6%) and only 40.4%. Buyers were mostly represented in the 41-50 age group (32.7%) with the youngest  cohort in the 17-21 year  grouping only 2.88%. The major consumers of this product had an income between Rp 1,500,000 and 2,999,999 (39.4%) and  were mainly high school graduates (35.7%). One of the most important factors was the belief that kefir was a functional food and beneficial for the health. Factors which affected the decision to buy goat milk kefir which could be used as a marketing development strategy were: habit, halal, nutritive value, natural product, ingredients, and  health benefits.

It can be concluded that a goat milk kefir developmental strategy can be carried out by improving consumer confidence in the belief that goat milk kefir is a functional drink conferring beneficial health attributes. .

Keywords: Food, halal, health, nutritive value


Traditionally kefir  is prepared using cows’ milk but in some areas milk from sheep and goats has been used as an alternative (Otles and Cagindi 2003). Hosono et al (1990) noted that kefir has been claimed to be a therapeutic food, and this issue has been discussed  extensively by Otles and Cagindi (2003) and represents one important  factor influencing consumer consistency  in their decisions to buy food products. Essael (1987) has identified  three factors that influence  consumer buying decisions;  namely income and education, and enviromental  and marketing  factors. The factors affecting East Java consumers in their buying choices have not been evaluated  and there is scarce  published material on this subject. Therefore, the aims of this study were to understand the development issues relating to consumption of goat milk kefir in East Java.

Materials and Methods


A 2-step protocol was used to select goat milk kefir consumers:  identification of location using purposeful sampling;  respondents who consumed goat milk kefir were chosen using accidental sampling.The research data  consisted of  primary data from  interviewing goat milk kefir consumers and secondary data from  statistical demographic data of East Java.


A Likert scale with five score levels in form of a questionnaire was used as study instrument. The factors that affected buying decision of goat milk kefir were :  Habit, Halal, Nutritive value,  Natural product, ingredients, Health attributes and Buying consideration.

Data analysis

Data were analysed using multiple linear regression with the mathematical formula as follows:

Y = a+β1X1+ β2X2+ β3X3+ β4X4+ ......+ βnXn+e.

Results and Discussion

Consumers of goat milk kefir in East Java were mainly women (59.6%).  It was found that their age was in the range of 41-50 years (32.7%). For the younger age of 17-21 years there were only 2.88% of respondents .From the point of view of their income, most  goat  milk kefir consumers in East Java had montly income of Rp 1,500,000 up  to Rp 2,999,999 (39.4%). The major consumers were private business people (46.0%),  whilst students represented only 0.96% Goat milk kefir consumers in East Java were in the majority high school graduates (35.6%).  

According to Aktas and Cebirbay (2010), demographic factors such as gender, age, job and education significantly affected functional food acceptability. Hassler (2002) stated that health beneficial  foods have  already  become  an important  consideration  for  food purchasers. However, Ettenson et al (1988) noted  that high acceptance of consumers on new products was influenced by level of income and education. In the case  of goat milk kefir in East Java, which is a relatively new product in the market, it was found that the price of this product had  a significant effect on consumer preference. 

In this study it was found  that  there were six  factors affecting consumers’ behavior in the decision of buying goat milk kefir,  i.e: habit, halal, nutritional value, natural product, ingredients, and health benefits. The multiple regression  analysis  of these  factors (Table 1) applied to buying of goat milk kefir  was as follows

Y=22.3 - 0.59X1 + 0.53X2 + 0.96X3 + 1.04X4 - 0.43X5 - 0.90X6

Table 1. Description of coefficients used in the regression equation



Standardized Coefficients




Std. Error









Habit, X1






Halal, X2






Nutritive- value, X3






Natural product, X4






Ingredient, X5






Health, X6






The natural product coefficient showed the highest Beta value compared to other factors (Table 1).  Analysis of variance with predictors  as the  independent variables (habit, halal, nutritional value, nature product, ingredients, and health benefit) showed that all six factors together significantly affected  consumers’ preference. 

One of the consumers behaviour issues was the belief that kefir was a functional food  which was beneficial  for  their health and motivated  them to consume goat milk kefir. It was thought to correct health disturbances such as cholesterol (29.8%),  uric acid (22.1%), high blood pressure (11.5%), diabetis (10.6%), gastrointestinal problems (8.65%), lung problems (5.77%), asthma (3.85%), allergy (1.92%), typhus (1.92%), vitality (1.92%), cancer (0.96%), and insomnia (0.96%).

Functional foods are foods with  added nutritional  and pharmaceutical  properties, and kefir as a functional food was also  believed  to have curative properties for  some diseases. This factor  was the most important contributor  for buying these  foods (Stanton et al 2001; Geoffrey 2005; Farnwoth 2005). Habit and health benefits  had a negative correlation with goat milk kefir consumers, hence the better health status of consumers the more was the  decrease  of their preference  in buying goat milk kefir; on the contrary  the lower the health status then the preference  for  this product was increased.

The successful development of probiotic milk was due to its positive image to consumers (Aktas and Cebirbay 2010).  Therefore all factors which affect consumers’ preference  have  a positive image. Halal, nutritive value, natural product and ingredients  represented physiological needs in direct  relation to quality of life as reported  by Assadi (2003). Kottler (1997) argued  that all these factors were a mirror of quality of life and could be seen in two perspectives,  namely internal and external factors. Internal quality of a product  was based on its specification, while external quality was based on consumers’ perception and had an important role from the point of view of marketing.  The acceptance of goat milk kefir by consumers as being a functional food was an important factor in relation to the success of marketing. According to Siro et al (2008), consumers acceptance  of a food is mainly determined  by their concern on health issues, and the belief that the product was a functional food, with natural ingredients.  

From the  price viewpoint, goat milk kefir  in East Java  is expensive  (Rp 100,000 to  120,000/littre). According to  Kotler (1997), the  purchase of expensive  goods   is of concern  to consumers and  they generally need to compile  and evaluate a number of factors   concerning the  products they wish to purchase.  



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Received 19 September 2011; Accepted 13 February 2012; Published 4 March 2012

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