Livestock Research for Rural Development 23 (10) 2011 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Studies on growth pattern in Kadaknath breed of chicken under field condition

M S Thakur and S N S Parmar

Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics,
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M. P.), India- 482001
drmohansingh@gmail.com

Abstract

Studies on growth pattern in body weight were conducted under ICAR ad hoc project on Kadaknath breed of poultry available in Jhabua district of western Madhya Pradesh. The recording of body weight was conducted with the help of two supervisors and ten enumerators in various centres using Questionnaire developed by National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR), Karnal.

The weekly average body weights of various survey centres recorded from 0 to 4 weeks of age for Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat) ranged from 27.40.19 to 1282.25 g and 28.70.15 to 1010.60 g, respectively. The Overall average body weights pooled for both districts i.e. Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat) from 0 to 4 weeks of age ranged from 27.60.17 to 1111.43 g. The differences at 0 and 1 weeks age in body weights between two s were non-significant and at two week the difference was significant (p0.05), whereas at 3 and 4 weeks of age the differences were highly significant (P0.01). The overall average body weights from 6 to 20 weeks of age for males and females recorded at fortnightly interval for various survey centres under Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) ranged from 1862.86 to 8866.18 g, whereas corresponding figures for various survey centres under Jhabua-II (Jobat) ranged from 1490.75 to 8504.29 g. The pooled overall body weight for both the districts from 6 to 20 weeks of age ranged from 1681.81 to 8685.54 g, under field conditions in Kadaknath birds. The differences in body weights between two districts from 6 to 20 weeks of age were significant (P0.05) to highly significant (P0.01). The overall average body weights from 6 to 12 months of age for males and females recorded at monthly interval for various survey centres under Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) ranged from 10266.20 to 15767.05 g, whereas corresponding figures for various survey centres under Jhabua-II (Jobat) ranged from 9735.74 to 14797.26 g. The overall average body weights pooled for both the districts i.e. Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat) from 6 to 12 months of age ranged from 10035.97 to 15347.16 g, under field conditions. The differences in body weights between two districts were highly significant (P0.01). The growth trends in both the districts i.e. Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat) were similar from 0 to 20 weeks of age and thereafter upto 52 weeks districts Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) showed superiority in growth over the district Jhabua-II (Jobat). The Kadaknath birds attain 1 kg body weight between 6 to 7 months of age and the birds reached around 1.5 kg by 1 year of age.

Key words: body weight, kadaknath, growth rate


Introduction

Madhya Pradesh has great biodiversity of livestock and poultry. Out of many indigenous poultry breeds the state has one well-known breed of native origin named as “Kadaknath” or “Kalamasi” meaning a fowl having black flesh. The birds are being reared mostly by tribals / adivasies living in Jhabua district of Western Madhya Pradesh. The commonly available varieties of Kadaknath birds are Jet-black, Pencilled and Golden. The bird is very popular among the tribals / adivasies mainly due to its special capabilities such as adaptability to local environment, resistance to certain diseases, meat quality and many other criteria specific to breed type (Rao and Thomas 1984). 

Native chickens have special characteristics of tropical adaptability, better resistance to disease and meat quality. Exploitation of these qualities using advanced breeding methods would lead to economically viable backyard poultry keeping which can be used on larger scale in rural / tribal areas. The progress is mostly due to scientific methods of breeding, feeding, management and disease control. However, along with scientific methods of commercial poultry farming in urban / semi urban areas the traditional or backyard poultry farming is still popular in rural and tribal areas where scientific poultry farming is difficult (Sharma and Rao 2001). Among the poor villagers backyard poultry farming is an age old practice where they keep mostly desi / indigenous birds which scavenge in the backyard and nearby field with very less health care and management. There growth and potential is low, however what ever they produce is net profit to the farmers / owner. In the coming years, poultry would get still an increasing importance in the country, as the available per capita land availability for cultivation would go down. Now, poultry farming has been, rightly, identified as one of the subsidiary occupations having a vast scope for assured economic benefits and enhancing the employment opportunities of the rural population in general and for weaker. 


Materials and Methods

The studies on growth pattern in body weight were conducted as part of thesis research work under ICAR Ad-hoc project on Kadaknath breed of poultry available in Jhabua district of western Madhya Pradesh. The recording of body weight was conducted with the help of two Supervisors and ten Enumerators in various centres using Questionnaire developed by National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR), Karnal.  The body weights were recorded at weekly intervals from 0 to 4th weeks of age, at fortnightly intervals after 4th week to 20th week of age and at monthly interval thereafter up to 12 months of age.   

On the assumption that breeding tract of Kadaknath breed is restricted to Jhabua district of western M.P.  Stratified multi stage sampling design was adopted (Sukhatme et al 1984).  Different zones within a district were identified which constituted the main strata.  Villages within each zone constituted the second unit and houses within the village constituted the primary unit. Five zones in each of the two Centres were randomly selected.  From each zone, 10 to 20 villages were randomly selected. As per the density of Kadaknath breed of poultry two centres were established in Jhabua district namely Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat). Each centre was further divided into five sub-centres/zones with the aim of covering maximum area of the district.  

Statistical analysis

The Mean, Standard deviation (SD) and Standard error (SE) were estimated as per the methods described by Steel and Torrie (1986) and t-test was used for testing the means of two districts i.e. Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat) for body weights.  


Results and discussion

The present investigation was conducted to find out the growth pattern in body weight of the Kadaknath birds under field conditions. The centre wise body weights were recorded at weekly intervals from 0 to 4 weeks of age, at fortnightly intervals after 4 to 20 weeks of age and at monthly interval thereafter up to 12 months of age.  The body weights were recorded for males and females separately from 6th week onwards. The centre wise overall average body weights from 0 day to 20 weeks of age and from 6 to 12 months of age for district Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) and district Jhabua-II (Jobat) are presented in Tables 1 to 5. 

Weekly body weight (0-4 weeks) 
Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) 

The average body weights from 0 to 4 weeks of age for various centres under Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) are presented in Table 1. The overall average body weights along with SE for various survey centres of district Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) from 0 to 4 weeks of age for Thandla, Kalyanpura, Jhabua, Para and Rama centres ranged from 24.30.18 to 131.42.55, 29.90.22 to 107.82.24, 26.00.02 to 1003.07, 26.60.10 to 1441.16 and 30.40.35 to 1562.21 g, respectively. The higher body weights from 0 to 4 weeks of age were observed at Rama centre as compared to Thandla, Kalyanpura, Jhabua, and Para centres. The higher body weight of birds from 0 to 4 weeks of age at Rama centre might be due to proper vaccination of birds at early age and providing sufficient grain supplement by the farmers. 

Jhabua-II (Jobat)

The average body weights from 0 to 4 weeks of age for various centres under Jhabua-II (Jobat) are presented in Table 1. The overall average body weights along with SE for various survey centres of district Jhabua-II (Jobat) from 0 to 4 weeks of age for Bhabra, Ambua, Udaygarh, Bori and Ranapur ranged from 28.60.18 to 97.50.62, 29.00.10 to 98.30.30, 28.120.08 to 97.60.67, 27.60.09 to 115 0.57 and 28.20.28 to 97.40.83 g, respectively. As shown in Table 1, body weights from 0 to 2 weeks of age were almost similar for all the survey centres, while from 2 to 4 weeks of age higher body weights were observed at Bori centre as compared to other centres. The higher body weight of birds from 2 to 4 weeks of age at Bori centre might be due to proper vaccination of birds at early age, sufficient grain supplement and better managemental practices. 

Table 1. Average body weight (g) from 0-4 weeks for various survey Centres of Districts Jhabua –I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat)

Districts

Age in weeks

District Jhabua –I (Meghnagar)

0 week

1 week

2 weeks

3 weeks

4 weeks

Thandla

 

Mean

24.3

35.2

53.1

83.0

132

SE

0.18

0.32

0.74

1.25

2.55

N

354

354

354

354

354

Kalyanpura

 

Mean

29.9

39.5

55.4

76.9

108

SF

0.22

0.48

0.84

1.33

2.24

N

265

265

265

265

265

Jhabua

 

Mean

26.0

35.1

45.9

67.2

100

SE

0.02

0.75

0.84

1.49

3.07

N

300

300

300

300

300

Para

 

Mean

26.7

38.3

63.8

96.8

144

SE

0.10

0.30

0.74

1.06

1.16

N

415

415

415

415

415

Rama

 

Mean

30.4

53.2

83.5

115.9

156

SE

0.35

0.56

0.93

1.13

2.21

N

215

215

215

215

215

Overall

Mean

27.4

40.2

60.3

88.0

128

SE

0.19

0.48

0.82

1.25

2.25

N

1549

1549

1549

1549

1549

District Jhabua –II (Jobat)

Bhabra

 

Mean

28.6

39.7

51.7

69.1

97.5

SE

0.18

0.39

0.51

0.56

0.62

N

625

625

625

625

625

Ambua

 

Mean

29.0

39.0

50.1

72.0

98.3

SE

0.10

0.11

0.59

0.23

0.30

N

625

625

625

625

625

Udaygarh

 

Mean

28.1

34.5

47.9

69.0

97.6

SE

0.08

0.09

0.16

0.14

0.67

N

615

615

615

615

615

Bori

 

Mean

27.6

36.3

54.7

78.6

125

SE

0.09

0.16

0.37

0.42

0.57

N

415

415

415

415

415

Ranapur

 

Mean

28.2

35.7

43.3

63.8

97.4

SE

0.28

0.34

0.48

0.64

0.83

N

310

310

310

310

310

Overall

Mean

28.7

37.0

49.5

70.5

103

SE

0.15

0.22

0.42

0.40

0.60

N

2590

2590

2590

2590

2590

SE - Standard error,  N- Number of observation.

Fortnightly body weight (6-20 weeks) 
Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) 

The average body weights from 6 to 12 weeks of age recorded at fortnightly interval for various centres under Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) are presented in Table 2. The overall pooled body weights at various centres for males and females recorded at 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks of age ranged from 1862.86 to 4334.17 g. As shown in Table 2, the males were found to be heavier than females in all survey centres at 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks of age. Higher body weights from 6 to 12 weeks were observed at Thandla (2183.85 to 5215.35 g) and Para (2152.08 to 5172.05 g) centres as compared Kalyanpura, Jhabua and Rama centres. The higher body weights at Thandla and Para centres may be due to better managemental condition and grain feed supplementation by the farmers of these centres as compared to other centres. 

The average body weights from 14 to 20 weeks of age recorded at fortnightly interval for various centres under Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) are presented in Table 3. The overall pooled body weights at various centres for males and females recorded at 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks of age ranged from 5324.75 to 8866.18 g. As shown in Table 3, the males were found to be heavier than females in all survey centres at 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks of age. Higher body weights were observed at Para (6334.07 to 10403.52 g), Thandla (6336.46 to 10369.13 to g) and Kalyanpura (5543.98 to 9547.08 g) centres as compared to Jhabua and Rama centres. The higher body weights at Para, Thandla and Kalyanpura centres may be due to better feeding practices and managemental condition by the farmers at these centres as compared to other centres.

Table 2. Average body Weight (g) from 6-12 weeks for various survey Centres of District Jhabua –I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat)

Age in weeks

6 weeks

8 weeks

10 weeks

12 weeks

Centre

M

F

Av.

M

F

Av.

M

F

Av.

M

F

Av.

Jhabua –I (Meghnagar)

Thandla

 

Mean

223

214

217

344

332

337

437

412

422

534

513

521

SE

5.40

4.22

3.85

6.72

4.89

4.58

7.96

5.76

5.01

7.81

5.76

5.35

N

164

275

439

164

275

439

164

275

439

164

272

436

Kalyanpura

 

Mean

174

150

160

255

219

234

354

304

325

266

223

235

SE

5.04

3.40

2.91

6.24

5.39

4.08

8.22

5.86

4.86

5.43

4.02

3.74

N

135

180

315

135

180

315

135

180

315

115

300

415

Jhabua

 

Mean

165

129

139

209

170

181

166

223

235

331

298

307

SE

6.76

2.69

2.70

7.27

3.21

3.07

5.43

4.02

3.74

9.07

5.15

4.49

N

115

300

415

115

300

415

115

300

415

115

300

415

Para

 

Mean

216

214

215

314

308

310

412

407

409

519

515

517

SE

3.66

2.47

2.08

4.54

2.94

2.55

5.98

3.83

3.34

3.26

2.94

2.05

N

160

320

480

160

320

480

160

320

480

160

320

480

Rama

 

Mean

204

197

200

255

247

250

327

309

316

399

379

386

SE

2.32

3.11

2.78

4.98

4.84

3.56

5.36

3.84

3.13

6.70

5.71

4.37

N

95

160

255

95

160

255

95

160

255

95

160

255

Overall

Mean

196

181

186

276

255

262

259

331

341

450

422

433

SE

4.64

3.18

2.86

5.95

4.25

3.57

6.59

4.66

4.02

6.69

5.18

4.17

N

669

1235

1904

669

1235

1904

669

1235

1904

669

1232

1901

District Jhabua –II (Jobat)

Bhabra

 

Mean

150

139

143

247

229

235

251

331

338

461

431

442

SE

1.25

1.01

0.97

2.91

1.58

1.43

2.91

4.30

2.97

2.91

1.88

1.59

N

125

230

355

125

230

355

125

230

355

125

230

355

Ambua

 

Mean

143

136

138

224

317

219

328

308

314

445

407

420

SE

0.86

0.50

0.44

2.40

3.33

2.36

2.73

1.49

1.35

4.34

2.89

2.41

N

125

250

375

125

250

375

125

250

337

125

250

375

Udaygarh

 

Mean

143

137

139

192

189

190

246

236

240

326

311

316

SE

0.60

0.55

0.41

0.76

0.97

0.66

3.64

2.97

2.56

3.06

2.25

1.82

N

160

250

410

160

250

410

160

250

410

160

250

410

Bori

 

Mean

176

169

172

249

243

246

333

318

324

434

409

419

SE

1.28

1.22

0.89

2.18

2.44

1.69

2.47

2.64

1.84

2.27

5.25

4.16

N

160

255

385

160

225

385

160

225

385

160

225

385

Ranapur

 

Mean

158

143

151

200

175

187

291

244

267

369

316

342

SE

1.39

1.42

1.06

3.11

1.13

1.29

3.25

1.75

1.85

2.36

2.29

2.12

N

110

215

325

110

215

325

110

215

325

110

215

325

Overall

Mean

154

145

149

222

231

216

309

287

297

407

375

388

SE

1.08

0.94

0.75

2.27

1.88

1.49

3.00

2.63

2.11

3.09

2.91

2.42

N

680

1170

1850

680

1170

1850

680

1170

1850

680

1170

1850

M-Male, F- Female, Av. - average weight, N-Number of observation, SE - standard error

 Jhabua-II (Jobat):  

The average body weights from 6 to 12 weeks of age recorded at fortnightly interval for various centres under Jhabua-II (Jobat) are presented in Table 2. The overall pooled body weights at various centres for males and females recorded at 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks of age ranged from 149 0.75 to 388 2.42 g. As shown in Table 2, the males were found to be heavier than females in all survey centres at 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks of age. At 6 week of age centre Bori (1720.89) and Ranapur (1511.06) showed higher body weight while thereafter from 8 to12 weeks of age the higher body weights were observed at Bhabra (2351.43 to 4421.59 g), Bori (2461.69 to 4194.16 g), and Ambua (2192.36 to 4202.41 g) centres as compared Udaygarh and Ranapur centres. The higher body weights at Bhabra, Bori and Ambua centres may be due to better feeding and managemental practices at these centres as compared to other centres. 

 The average body weights from 14 to 20 weeks of age recorded at fortnightly interval for various centres under Jhabua-II (Jobat) are presented in Table 3. The overall pooled body weights at various centres for males and females recorded at 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks of age ranged from 4972.45 to 8504.29 g. As shown in Table 3, the males were found to be heavier than females in all survey centres at 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks of age. Higher body weights were observed at Ambua (5602.41 to 9524.38 g), Bhabra (5572.56 to 9204.36 to g) and Bori (5002.55 to 8183.49 g) centres as compared to Udaygarh and Ranapur centres. Higher body weights at Ambua, Bhabra and Bori centres may be due to better managemental practices and grain feed supplementation by farmers at these centres as compared to other centres.

Table 3. Average body Weight (g) from 14-20 weeks for various survey Centres of Districts Jhabua –I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat)

Age in weeks

14 weeks

16 weeks

18 weeks

20 weeks

Centre

M

F

Av.

M

F

Av.

M

F

Av.

M

F

Av.

Jhabua –I (Meghnagar)

Thandla

 

Mean

642

628

633

779

760

768

927

896

909

1056

1021

1036

SE

8.75

7.54

6.46

9.88

8.73

7.15

11.36

10.78

8.50

12.77

11.22

9.13

N

164

253

417

160

222

383

152

204

356

138

186

324

Kalyanpura

 

Mean

597

522

554

737

654

689

870

784

820

1003

918

954

SE

5.84

5.41

3.98

6.61

5.56

4.26

6.79

4.20

3.81

10.82

9.38

7.08

N

135

180

315

135

180

315

135

180

315

135

180

315

Jhabua

 

Mean

331

298

307

398

364

373

496

446

460

592

522

542

SE

9.07

5.15

4.49

8.88

5.79

4.85

9.65

5.93

4.71

10.86

6.49

5.57

N

115

300

415

115

300

415

115

300

415

115

300

415

Para

 

Mean

643

628

633

768

745

753

911

879

889

1072

1023

1040

SE

7.45

4.45

4.07

7.00

4.93

4.04

6.09

4.31

3.52

6.18

4.19

3.52

N

160

320

480

150

300

450

150

300

450

150

300

450

Rama

 

Mean

491

448

464

274

525

544

662

610

629

781

741

756

SE

7.65

5.32

4.39

8.16

4.42

4.12

7.93

5.79

4.68

8.64

6.85

5.37

N

95

160

255

95

160

255

95

160

255

95

160

255

Overall

Mean

554

518

532

611

626

643

792

736

758

926

864

886

SE

7.71

5.70

4.75

8.26

5.91

4.86

8.61

6.33

5.22

9.25

7.70

6.18

N

669

1213

1882

655

1162

1818

647

1144

1791

633

1126

1759

District Jhabua –II (Jobat)

Bhabra

 

Mean

584

543

557

725

659

682

883

782

862

981

893

920

SE

2.74

2.99

2.56

5.24

3.60

2.98

4.80

3.54

3.56

5.89

4.98

4.36

N

125

230

355

125

230

355

125

235

360

100

235

335

Ambua

 

Mean

595

543

560

732

674

694

852

789

810

1005

926

952

SE

4.34

2.89

2.41

4.70

3.30

2.70

4.58

3.95

3.26

8.56

5.00

4.38

N

125

250

375

125

250

375

125

250

375

125

250

375

Udaygarh

 

Mean

416

399

406

548

534

540

665

641

650

798

779

787

SE

3.37

2.50

2.01

4.32

3.58

2.76

5.77

4.78

3.89

6.67

5.29

4.15

N

160

250

410

160

250

410

160

250

410

160

250

410

Bori

 

Mean

508

493

500

609

594

600

716

702

708

827

812

818

SE

3.34

3.66

2.55

3.68

4.13

2.86

5.51

4.85

3.22

4.32

5.12

3.49

N

160

225

385

160

225

385

160

225

385

160

225

385

Ranapur

 

Mean

477

447

462

545

519

532

654

629

637

820

725

773

SE

3.17

3.18

2.74

4.21

4.97

3.73

587

5.42

4.61

9.40

6.00

5.08

N

110

215

325

110

215

325

110

215

325

110

215

325

Overall

Mean

516

485

497

632

596

610

754

709

724

886

827

850

SE

3.39

3.04

2.45

4.43

3.92

3.01

5.31

4.51

3.71

6.97

5.28

4.29

N

680

1170

1850

680

1170

1850

680

1175

1855

655

1175

1830

M-Male, F- Female, N-Number of observation, Av - Average weight,   SE - Standard error

Monthly body weight (6-12 months) 
Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) 

The average body weights from 6 to 9 months of age recorded at monthly interval for various survey centres under district Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) are presented in Table 4. The overall pooled body weights at various survey centres for males and females recorded at 6, 7, 8 and 9 months age ranged from 10266.20 to 13196.44 g.

As shown in Table 4, the males were found to be heavier than females in all survey centres at 6, 7, 8 and 9 months of age. Higher body weights from 6 to 9 months of age were observed at Thandla (11697.81 to 14089.25 g), Para 11764.66 to 13375.43) and Kalyanpura (11006.82 to 14766.01 g) centre respectively, as compared to Jhabua and Rama centres.  The higher body weights at Thandla, Para and Kalyanpura centres may be due to better managemental conditions and grain feed supplementation by the farmers of these areas.  

The average body weights from 10 to 12 months of age recorded at monthly interval for various survey centres under district Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) are presented in Table 5. The overall pooled body weights at various survey centres for males and females recorded at 10, 11 and 12 months age ranged from 13856.43 to 15767.05 g. 

As shown in Table 5, the males were found to be heavier than females in all survey centres at 10, 11 and 12 months of age. The higher body weights from 10 to 12 month of age were observed at Kalyanpura (15676.43 to 17668.44 g), Thandla (14279.23 to 15588.36 g) and Para 13626.05 to 15916.52 g) centres respectively, as compared to Jhabua and Rama centres.  The higher body weights at Thandla, Para and Kalyanpura centres may be due to better managemental conditions and sufficient grain supplement feeding by the farmers of these areas. As shown in Figure 1, fast growth trend was observed from 0 to 20 week of age in all the centres; however the growth became slower after 20 week of age up to 52 weeks of age.

Figure 1. Zone-wise comparison of body weight for Jhabua-I (Meghnagar)


Table 4. Average body Weight (g) from 6-9 Months for various survey Centres of Districts Jhabua –I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat)

Age in Months

6 Months

7 Months

8 Months

9 Months

Centre

M

F

Av.

M

F

Av.

M

F

Av.

M

F

Av.

Jhabua –I (Meghnagar)

Thandla

 

Mean

1201

1152

1169

1342

1238

1274

1471

1290

1356

1560

1330

1408

SE

12.50

7.40

7.81

9.68

8.20

8.75

11.90

7.41

7.50

11.23

8.92

9.25

N

100

190

290

100

190

290

100

175

275

90

175

265

Kalyanpura

 

Mean

1157

1057

1100

1288

1179

1225

1430

1294

1352

1564

1410

1476

SE

10.98

8.64

6.82

9.77

8.71

6.51

10.03

7.65

6.13

9.52

7.72

6.01

N

135

180

315

135

180

315

135

180

315

135

180

315

Jhabua

 

Mean

898

762

803

1037

891

935

1173

1012

1060

1267

1128

1171

SE

12.15

8.55

7.01

11.03

7.03

5.93

12.34

5.52

5.36

12.90

8.55

7.13

N

80

185

265

80

185

265

80

185

265

80

185

265

Para

 

Mean

1224

1158

1176

1334

1244

1268

1406

1246

1292

1481

1279

1337

SE

8.29

6.18

4.66

8.43

6.62

4.83

9.80

7.95

5.74

9.69

6.97

5.43

N

90

240

330

90

240

330

80

200

280

80

200

280

Rama

 

Mean

905

868

882

1045

1014

1026

1143

1093

1112

1265

1171

1206

SE

7.86

5.82

4.68

8.64

3.58

3.93

7.54

4.29

3.89

7.05

5.71

4.40

N

95

160

255

95

160

255

95

160

255

95

160

255

Overall

Mean

1077

999

1026

1209

1113

1146

1325

1187

1234

1427

1267

1087

SE

10.36

7.32

6.20

9.51

6.83

5.99

10.32

6.56

5.72

10.08

7.57

6.44

N

500

955

1455

500

955

1455

490

900

1390

480

900

1380

District Jhabua –II (Jobat)

Bhabra

 

Mean

1086

956

998

1186

1092

1119

1246

1078

1126

1285

1122

1169

SE

9.25

6.72

5.81

9.21

4.83

4.34

8.89

6.75

5.45

9.03

6.54

5.48

N

100

215

315

80

200

280

80

200

280

80

200

280

Ambua

 

Mean

1170

1075

1095

1278

1184

1204

1316

1231

1249

1365

1236

1263

SE

13.70

6.42

5.83

6.11

715

6.22

7.33

5.54

4.64

9.91

5.60

4.89

N

40

150

190

40

150

190

40

150

190

40

150

190

Udaygarh

 

Mean

964

941

949

1096

1050

1065

1198

1168

1178

1296

1255

1267

SE

9.89

5.68

5.02

9.64

6.18

5.28

7.80

5.63

4.57

8.37

5.93

4.87

N

75

150

225

75

150

225

75

150

225

60

150

210

Bori

 

Mean

961

946

950

1093

1074

1078

1183

1146

1156

1287

1246

1256

SE

8.34

7.42

5.98

7.43

7.52

5.98

7.26

8.12

6.41

8.28

7.62

6.12

N

43

135

178

43

135

178

43

135

178

43

135

178

Ranapur

 

Mean

916

835

875

988

940

964

1088

1020

1054

1175

1105

1140

SE

8.26

6.93

6.04

11.62

8.11

6.91

9.65

10.28

9.32

11.96

8.88

7.50

N

40

160

200

40

160

200

40

160

200

40

160

200

Overall

Mean

1019

951

973

1128

1068

1086

1206

1129

1152

1282

1193

1219

SE

9.89

6.63

5.74

8.80

6.76

5.75

8.19

7.26

6.08

9.51

6.91

5.77

N

298

810

1108

278

795

1073

278

795

1073

263

795

1058

M-Male, F- Female, N-Number of observation, Av. - Average weight, SE - Standard error

 Jhabua - II (Jobat) 

The average body weights from 6 to 9 months of age recorded  at  monthly  interval for various survey centres  under  district Jhabua - II (Jobat) are presented in Table 4. The overall pooled body weights at various survey centres for males and females recorded at 6, 7, 8 and 9 months age ranged from 9735.74 to 12195.77 g. 

As shown in Table 4, the males were found to be heavier than females in all survey centres at 6, 7, 8 and 9 months of age. The average higher body weights from 6 to 8 months of age were observed at Ambua (10955.83 to 12494.68 g) as compared to Bhabra, Udaygarh, Bori and Ranapur centres, however at 9 months of age, Ambua, Udaygarh and Bori centres showed almost similar body weights.  The higher body weights at Ambua may be due to better feeding practices at this centre as compared to other centres.  

The average body weights from 10 to 12 months of age recorded at monthly interval for various survey centres under district Jhabua-II (Jobat) are presented in Table 5. The overall pooled body weights at various survey centres for males and females recorded at 10, 11 and 12 months age ranged from 12866.32 to 14797.16 g. 

As shown in Table 5, the males were found to be heavier than females in all survey centres at 10, 11 and 12 months of age. The higher body weights from 10 to 12 month of age were observed at Udaygarh (13545.42 to 15866.73 g) and Bori (13385.46 to 14839.50 g) centres respectively, as compared to Bhabra, Ambua and Ranapur centres. Higher body weights at Udaygarh and Bori centres may be due to better feeding and managemental practices adopted by farmers of these areas as compared to others centres.  As shown in Figure 2, continuous fast growth trend was observed from 0 to 20 week of age in all survey centres under district Jhabua – II (Jobat).  However after 20th week the growth was slower up to 52 weeks.


Figure 2. Zone-wise comparison of body weight for Jhabua-II (Jobat)


Table 5. Average body Weight (g) from 10-12 Months for various survey Centres of  Districts Jhabua –I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat)

Age in Months

10 Months

11 Months

12 Months

Centre

M

F

Av.

M

F

Av.

M

F

Av.

Jhabua –I (Meghnagar)

Thandla

 

Mean

1604

1357

1427

1681

1406

1477

176

1488

1558

SE

10.68

7.94

9.23

12.41

8.85

10.22

12.81

6.72

8.36

N

70

175

245

55

160

215

55

160

215

Kalyanpura

 

Mean

1695

1471

1567

1812

1556

1657

1939

1653

1765

SE

9.54

8.68

6.43

11.49

8.35

6.79

12.17

11.44

8.44

N

135

180

315

120

185

305

110

171

281

Jhabua

 

Mean

1366

1234

1274

1487

1337

1382

1694

1452

1514

SE

13.07

8.49

7.12

12.57

6.44

5.89

14.60

8.79

7.53

N

80

185

265

80

185

265

66

191

257

Para

 

Mean

1530

1295

1362

1688

1318

1424

1838

1493

1591

SE

11.04

7.47

6.05

11.05

7.52

6.07

11.63

8.38

6.52

N

80

200

280

80

200

280

80

200

280

Rama

 

Mean

1375

1246

1294

1479

1318

1378

1594

1368

1452

SE

6.28

3.76

3.32

5.78

4.63

3.62

7.47

5.41

4.39

N

95

160

255

95

160

255

95

160

255

Overall

Mean

1614

1320

1385

1629

1387

1463

1765

1491

1576

SE

10.12

7.27

6.43

10.66

7.18

6.52

11.74

8.15

7.05

N

460

900

1360

430

890

1320

406

882

1288

District Jhabua –II (Jobat)

Bhabra

 

Mean

1386

1176

1236

1476

1215

1290

1639

1383

1456

SE

10.33

8.87

6.99

10.57

6.95

6.13

6.01

5.71

5.15

N

80

200

280

80

200

280

80

200

280

Ambua

 

Mean

1388

1285

1307

1417

1340

1356

1619

1406

1451

SE

11.97

6.91

6.01

10.97

6.98

6.06

11.71

7.14

6.65

N

40

150

190

40

150

1.90

40

150

190

Udaygarh

 

Mean

1395

1343

1354

1539

1397

1427

1688

1485

1586

SE

9.12

6.43

5.42

10.75

7.16

6.35

11.33

7.97

6.73

N

40

150

190

40

150

190

40

150

190

Bori

 

Mean

1385

1326

1338

1468

1387

1404

1685

1439

1483

SE

9.98

8.31

5.46

11.74

9.17

7.66

11.28

11.31

9.50

N

30

115

145

30

115

145

25

115

140

Ranapur

 

Mean

1257

1130

1193

1366

1190

1278

1557

1280

1418

SE

12.28

8.90

7.74

3.87

11.36

5.59

4.86

8.87

7.78

N

30

160

190

30

160

190

30

160

190

Overall

Mean

1362

1252

1286

1453

1306

1351

1637

1398

1479

SE

10.74

7.88

6.32

9.58

8.32

7.16

9.04

8.20

7.16

N

220

775

995

220

775

995

215

775

990

M-Male, F- Female, Av. – Average weight, SE - Standard error, N-Number of observation

Comparative growth pattern in body weight at Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat)

The body weights from 0 to 4 weeks of age for district Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat) were tested for significance level using t-test. The differences at 0 and 1 week of age were found to be non-significant and at 2 weeks the difference was significant (p≤0.05) whereas at 3 and 4 weeks of age the differences between the two centres/districts were found highly significant (p≤0.01). Mishra (1983) reported higher body weights at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of age in Kadaknath breed of poultry as 29.20.26, 37.1.038, 58.01.00, 82.61.69 and 1232.47 g respectively, under farm conditions; whereas the body weights were found marginally lower in the present study under field conditions.  

The pooled overall body weight for both the districts at 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks of age were found to be 1681.81, 2392.53, 3193.07 and 4113.30 g, respectively under field conditions. The differences at 6,8,10 and 12 weeks of age were found to be highly significant (p≤0.01). Mishra (1983) reported higher body weights as 2494.03, 3975.23, 5556.96 and 754 g, respectively at 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks of age in Kadaknath breed of poultry under farm condition; whereas Singh et al (1988) also reported higher body weight (250 g) at 8 weeks of age in Kadaknath breed of poultry under farm conditions.

The body weights at 14, 16, 18 and 20 weeks of age were found to be 514 3.60, 626 3.94, 741 4.47 and 868 5.54 g respectively. The differences between body weights at 14, 16, 18 and 20 weeks between two districts were found to be significant (p≤0.05). Singh and Singh (1998) reported higher body weight (1050 g) at 20 week of age in Kadaknath breed of poultry.  

The pooled body weights at 6, 7, 8 and 9 months of age were 1003 5.97, 1120 5.87, 1199 5.90 and 1276 6.11 g respectively. The differences in body weights between two districts were found to be highly significant (p≤0.01).

The body weights recorded at 10, 11 and 12 months of age were found to be 13436.38, 14156.84 and 15347.16 g respectively. The differences in body weights between two districts were found to be highly significant (p≤0.01), which may be due to variation in managemental practices followed by the farmers in these areas. As shown in Fig 3, growth trend in both the districts i.e. Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) and Jhabua-II (Jobat) were similar upto 20 weeks of age and thereafter Jhabua-I (Meghnagar) districts showed superiority in growth over the Jhabua- II (Jobat) upto 52 weeks of age.

Figure 3. District wise comparison of body weight

Conclusion


References

Mishra A K 1983 Comparative studies on Growth and Haematology of Kadaknath and white leghorn chickens at different age groups. M V Sc & A H, Thesis, J N K V V , Jabalpur.

 

Rao G V and Thomas  P C 1984  The breed characteristics of Kadaknath breed of indigenous (Desi) chicken. Avian Research  68 (12): 55-57.

 

Sharma R P and Roma Rao S V  2001  Propagation of poultry in adverse environment. National Seminar on approximate poultry for adverse environment pp. 29-40.

 

Singh V K, Mohan  M, Verma  S B, Mandal K G and Singh  D P 1999 Analysis of body weights at different ages in pure and crossbred chicken.  Indian Journal of Poulty Science 34 (2) : 156-160.

 

Sukhatme P V, Serkhatme  B V,  Sukhatme  S and Ashok  1984 Sampling theory of surveys with applications. Iowa state University Press.



Received 9 May 2011; Accepted 9 July 2011; Published 10 October 2011

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