Livestock Research for Rural Development

Volume 20, Number 9, 2008

LRRD Newsletter

Welcome to Volume 20, Number 9 of Livestock Research for Rural Development


New Web site for LRRD
Papers received and published
New developments
  • Indexing LRRD
  • Search engine for LRRD
  • Associate-editors
Editorial Procedures
Proof reading of papers
References to LRRD on the Web
On Line Formats for LRRD
  • The HTML Format
E-mail addresses of the Publishers and Editors of LRRD
The University of Tropical Agriculture Foundation
The MEKONG Basin Animal Research Network (MEKARN)
Recycling livestock and human excreta
Recent FAO Publications
  • Tropical Feeds
  • Recent relevant books from FAO Animal Production and Health Series
  • Better Farming Series

New Web site for LRRD

A new Web site has been developed for LRRD. The URL is The new email of the Chief Editor is:

This will facilitate the editing of papers and the collection of statistics relating to visits (hits) to the site. New email addresses are detailed in the section

Papers received and published in 2007

The numbers of papers submitted to LRRD continues to increase  reaching 434 in 2007.(Figure 1).

Figure 1: Papers submitted to LRRD in the period 2000-2007

There are some changes in the origins of the papers in 2007 compared with 2006 (Figures 2 and 3). Nigeria is still at the head of the list with India almost at the same level,  followed by Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. Papers were submitted from 50 countries in 2007, compared with 45 in 2006.



Figure 2: Papers submitted to LRRD during 2006 (n=406)

Figure 3: Papers submitted to LRRD during 2007 (n=434)

The number of papers published since the launch of LRRD in 1989 up to the end of 2007 is now 1,211. During the last 4 years the annual increase in numbers of papers published has averaged close to 30% (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Papers published  in LRRD since it was launched in 1989

The average time to process the papers published in 2006 was 127 days, divided between the time taken in the review process (65 days) and in final editing and formatting in HTML (62days). Reviewing took considerably less time in 2007 while the time for final editing and formatting was slightly higher.  The rate of rejection has been 24%, similar to that recorded in 2005 and 2006. Numbers rejected and published do not add up to the number received as some papers published in 2007 were received in 2006 and many papers received in 2007 are still in the review and editing process.

Table 1: Papers received, rejected and published during 2005, 2006 and 2007





Papers received




Papers rejected

75 (25%)

93 (26%)

105 (24%)

Papers published




Reception to acceptance, days




Acceptance to publication, days




Reception to publication, days




The rapid growth in papers received and published during the last 5 years has put considerable pressure on the editorial team which, as we have often pointed out, is composed of professional scientists (most of them self-employed), who give their time freely to promote the mission of LRRD.  The journal does not receive financial support from any quarter and does not employ secretaries or technical assistants. All activities are done online by electronic mail or through the Web pages of LRRD ( and utafoundation ( In this medium, constantly under pressure from Spam and viruses, papers and communications to and from authors may be mislaid or lost permanently. The editorial team take all possible precautions to avoid disruption of the editorial process, but mistakes are inevitable.

Authors are therefore requested to:

New developments:

The journal has instituted the numbering system required for indexing in ISI and other International Databases. In the table of contents and in the "citations",  articles in a given volume are numbered consecutively. The issue is no longer quoted in the citations.

A search engine has been developed by the LRRD "IT" consultant (Mr Nicholas Waltham) which facilitates "on-line" searching of all the LRRD issues available on the web site. 

We have introduced a system of having associate-editors to take care of papers in certain areas, in order to reduce the work load of the editors and to ensure more efficient communication between editors and authors. The procedure is working well, according to the guidelines set out in "Norms for preparation of papers for LRRD".  We welcome Ms Aruna Kumar who is acting as Associate Editor for the Indian Continent.

The list of Editors and Associate-editors is as follows:

The Scientific Committee, which acts in an advisory capacity, is:

Editorial procedures

Receipt of papers is usually confirmed the day they arrive and almost always they are sent to the associate-editors (or in some case direct to reviewers) the same day. We expect reviewers to send recommendations to the associate-editors (or Chief Editor), as to acceptance of papers for publication in LRRD, and comments, within two weeks of receiving the paper. 

If authors do not receive confirmation of receipt of their papers within two weeks of submitting them, they should remind the chief editor on:

It will also decrease our work load and speed up publication, if authors follow carefully the style and format of LRRD by consulting published papers in earlier issues. Attention is drawn to the style of references and tables which is where most mistakes are made.

Please read the section on "Norms for preparation of papers for LRRD" for details. Failure to observe the LRRD norms for editing papers will inevitably lead to delays in publication, because of the additional work load this causes for the Editors.

Proof reading of papers:

A paper written for LRRD in "html" has a number of supporting files including the "style" of headings and the images of graphs and photos. This creates some difficulties for editors and authors for the final "proof-reading" of the papers when these are sent by E-mail,  as the editors have to ensure that the supporting files are attached along with the paper; and the author, when she / he receives the paper,  has to put all the files in the same folder to be sure that when the paper is opened it will appear complete on the screen.  To avoid these inconveniences, each paper as it is edited is being made available as a provisional "url" which is communicated to authors when the final version of their paper is ready in html format. Authors can then check the paper for possible errors or last minute corrections and inform the editors accordingly. The URL for proofs of papers is

References to LRRD on the Web

It appears that at present there are no defined standards for citing papers published electronically.  Obviously it is an advantage for such citations to include the "URL" which will take the reader direct to the paper in question. The correct citation for LRRD is now shown in the link "Citation of this paper" at the top of the first page of each article. 

On Line Formats for Livestock Research for Rural Development

HTML ('HyperText Markup Language')

HTML is the native language for publishing documents on the World Wide Web and is understood by all Web browsing software. The journal, as the principal means of publication of developing world sustainable agriculture, needs to be easily available to the widest possible audience of interested people. Using HTML as the on online publishing format has three principal advantages. The first is that everybody who finds the journal can read it with their Internet browser (Microsoft Internet Explorer, and Firefox, are amongst the most common). Secondly, the Internet search engines such as Google, Yahoo, Infoseek and others will index the pages. Thirdly, articles can be posted on the Web  as soon as they are formatted in HTML, thus increasing tremendously the speed of communication of information.

All previous issues of the journal have now been converted to HTML format (thanks to CIPAV staff in Colombia), thus there is available on the Internet through the CIPAV web pages a library of over 20 years of research in the field of developing world sustainable agriculture.

The HTML version of LRRD is available on the Web at:


E-mail addresses of the Publishers and Editors of LRRD

The publisher (CIPAV) in Colombia

The Editors in Colombia in France in England



A CD-ROM with all issues of the journal up to the most recent issue can be obtained on request from the Editor in Colombia.  The price is USD 10.00 per copy, excluding air-mail postage.

The University of Tropical Agriculture Foundation (UTA)

UTA has moved it's international base of activities from Cambodia to Colombia, to a recently purchased farm in the Department of Santander, which is being developed as an "ecofarm" for research, demonstration and learning. The UTA Home page is being updated to reflect these changes.

The MEKONG Basin Animal Research Network (MEKARN)

Details of this network, financed by SidaSAREC,  and involving research and training institutions in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, can be found on the Web site:

Recycling livestock and human excreta

Much interest has been generated in the low-cost plastic biodigesters and the duckweed ponds which are an integral feature of ecological farming.  A manual giving practical details of these technologies has been prepared for FAO and is available at:

In addition to this manual which uses "still" pictures, more detailed guides on the Biodigesters and the Duckweed ponds are available on CD-ROMs in combined Video and Text format:

1. Productive use of livestock wastes: a manual for installation of low-cost plastic biodigesters

2. Productive use of livestock wastes: a manual for the use of  biodigester effluent and ponds for duckweed production

Prices are USD10.00 for each CD-ROM disk plus freight. Details can be had from Lylian Rodriguez at:

FAO Publications

This is an electronic edition of the book `Tropical Feeds', originally written by Dr Bo Göhl, and published by FAO in 1971. The database (program prepared by Dr A W Speedy and Nick Waltham) is available on CD-ROM from: The Senior Officer (Feed Resources), Animal Production and Health Division, FAO, Via della terme di Caracalla, 00100-Rome, Italy.

The most recent version (version 8) is available on:

No 126, Tropical animal feeding: A manual for research workers (T R Preston) 1995, pp 305 (English)

No 132, Feeding pigs in the tropics (Rena Perez) 1997, pp 185 (English):

No 134, Tratamiento y utilización de residuos de origen animal, pesquero y alimenticio en la alimentación animal (Editors: Vilda Figueroa y Manuel Sánchez) 1997, pp 255 (Castellano) [Not yet available on Internet]

No 135, Roughage utilization in warm climates (Michel Chenost and Chedly Kayouli) 1997, pp 226 (English et Français)  
English version:
Version française :

No 139, Tree foliage in ruminant nutrition (Ronald A Leng) 1997, pp 100 (English)

Duckweed; a tiny aquatic plant with enormous potential for agriculture and environment (Ronald A Leng) 1999, pp 108 (English)

No 42, Using fodder from trees and shrubs to feed livestock in the tropics (O B Smith), pp 52 (English, Français, Castellano)

No 43, Feeding animals on straw (F Dolberg), pp30 (English)

No 44, Processing of cassava and sweet potatoes for animal feeding (V Ravindran), pp 49 (English)

No 45, Multinutrient block handbook (L O Garcia and J I Restrepo), pp 28 (English)

No 46, Use of cassava and sweet potatoes in animal feeding (V Ravindran), pp 47(English)

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