Livestock Research for Rural Development 20 (8) 2008 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD News

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Processing and properties of Sudanese white cheese (Gibna Bayda) in small-scale cheese units in South and West Darfur states (Sudan)

O I A Hamid and O A O El Owni*

Department of Dairy Production, Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Shambat, P.O. Box 32, Postal Code 13314, Khartoum North, Sudan
elowniosman@gmail.com
*Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zalingei, P.O. Box 6 , Zalingei, Sudan

Abstract

The study was carried out to compare the manufacture and composition of Sudanese white cheese (Gibna Bayda) in three different localities in South and West Darfur states. The educational status, sex, age and family size, and cost of production showed great variations between cheese manufacturers in the three areas.

Significant (P<0.05) variations were observed in the chemical composition of the cheese samples although the production techniques were slightly different from each other. The average chemical composition was 52.84% total solids;  23.79%  fat 20.41%; crude protein; 0.36%  water soluble protein; 5.34% ash; 1.03% titratable acidity; 5.83% salt; 10.22  0.1N ml NaOH/100gm volatile fatty acids; 97.25 and 208.05 mg/100gm cheese tryptophane and  tyrosine  contents.       

The cheese yield was 13.5, 17 and 13.25 (kg). The production cost and sales prices were higher around big urban areas. The findings of this study suggest that intervention and training of cheese producers will help in improving Gibna Bayda   production and quality in Darfur States.

Key words: cheese yield, chemical composition, ripening indices, salt, South Darfur, volatile fatty acids


Introduction

The main domestic animal species in the Sudan are cattle, sheep, goats and camels. Most of the livestock of the country is concentrated in rural areas in the hands of nomads (Anon1990).  Fresh liquid milk is not the only dairy product in the South and West Darfur, During rainy season when milk is relatively plentiful, Baggara women process part of the milk extracted from their cows into buttermilk (roob) and clarified butter or ghee (samin). Sudanese white cheese is made from cow's, ewe's, goat's, skim milk powder or mixture of the latter milk with any other kind of milk from the species mentioned (Jack 1955). In spite of the popularity of Gibna Bayda, there were no studies on the production method and chemical composition of this cheese in Darfur states.

           

The existance of seasonally surplus milk at low prices has prompted several entrepreneurial merchants to set up small-scale rural cheese-making plants which offer women higher prices for whole milk than they could otherwise obtain for buttermilk  (Kerven 1987).

 

Manufacture methods and milk composition affects the chemical composition of the produced cheese (Tarakci and Kucukoner 2006). Absence of standard processing methods explains the variations observed in the nutrient composition of cheese in developing countries (Turkoglu et al 2003). Warsama et al (2006) reported that Sudanese white soft cheese contained 47.8% total solids, 14.0% fat, 15.9% protein, 6.2% ash. Sudanese white cheese made with 6% salt had higher total solids, crude protein and fat content (Hamid et al 2008). Proteolysis is probably the most imortant biochemical event during ripening of most cheese varieties with a major impact on flavor and texture (Fox 1989). The increase observed in the protein content could be of microbial proliferation on most especially the lactic acid bacteria (Alalade and Adeneye 2007)

           

The aim of this study was to review the sociological status, production technique, manufacture status, chemical composition and the ripening properties of Gibna Bayda manufactured in small-scale units in South and West Darfur (Sudan).

 

Material and methods 

Source of data

       

The study was carried out in Bulbul Timbisco and El Daein areas (South Darfur) and Garsilla in West Darfur. The methods of cheese making in these States differ from one place to another. This study was carried out during the rainy season (July/ October 2005). Questionnaire, survey and personal observation during processing of cheese were used for obtaining the present results of production techniques and manufacture.

 

Collection of cheese samples

         

Cheese samples were collected from small-scale commercial cheese factories in Garsilla,  Bulbul Timbisco and El Daein areas. The cheese samples were collected in clean, dry and sterilized wide mouth jars, kept in an icebox (4C)  and transported to the  Regional Veterinary Research Laboratory, Nyala, South Darfur State for chemical analysis.

 

Chemical analysis of cheese samples

 

Gibna Bayda samples were analyzed for titratable acidity, total solids, crude protein and ash contents according to AOAC (1990). Fat contents were determined according to Foley et al (1974), soluble protein was determined according to Ling (1963) and salt content was determined according to Breene and Price (1961). Volatile fatty acids were determined according to Kosikowski (1982). Tyrosine and tryptophane contents were determined according to Vakaleris and Price (1959).

 

Statistical analysis

 

Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS) Software (1998). Completely Randomized Design was used to estimate the chemical composition and sensory characteristics of the Gibna Bayda in West and South Darfur States, Sudan.

 

Results 

Manufacture methods

 

Cheese manufacturers purchase fresh raw cow’s milk from the milk producers in rural areas around the cheese factories who brought milk in plastic containers on donkeys. The milk was strained with a piece of cloth in plastic or iron barrels. In Garsilla (West Darfur) and El Daein (South Darfur) the cheese makers added salt to milk at the rate of  6 – 15% before renneting, then rennet tablets (Christian Hansen, Denmark) were added to the milk at the rate of  2 – 4 tablets per barrel (200 liters). The milk left for coagulation for about 1 to 2 hours. The curd was then cut using a clean wood for whey drainage. The cut curd poured into wooden molds lined with clean cloth. Suitable weights put on the molds cover for about 6 hours. The drained whey collected into a clean pan is used for cheese preservation. Next day the cheese (Gibna) is removed from the molds and cut into small cubes 10x10x10 cm. The cut Gibna is preserved into it's own whey, packed in plastic containers of about 80 Kg cheese (Gibna) capacity and stored at the room (35-37C) until marketing.

             

In Bulbul Timbisco (South Darfur) the cheese producers followed the same procedures but they added salt at the rate of 6% to the curd during molding. It was observed that they pressed the curd overnight.

 

Yield, cost and price of cheese in South and West Darfur states

 

Table 1 shows the cheese yield percent in Bulbul Timbisco, Garsilla and El Daein area were 17 %, 13.5, and 13.25 %, respectively.


Table 1.  The average cheese yield, producers cost and sales price of kg Gibna Bayda (SDG *) in South and West Darfur States

Area

Cheese yield

Production cost of one Kg of cheese (SDG)

Sale  price of one Kg of cheese (SDG)

Garsilla

13.50

4.16

7.00

Bulbul Timbisco

17.00

5.32

7.00

El Daein

13.25

4.58

6.00

*SDG= 0.5 $ (USA Dollar)


The production cost of one kilogram cheese was 5.32, 4.16 and 4.58 Sudanese  Genie  (SDG) in Bulbul Timbisco, Garsilla and El Daein, respectively. The sale prices  of a Kg of cheese was 7.00, 7.00 and 6.00   SDG  in Bulbul Timbisco, El Daein and Garsilla, respectively (SDG = 0.5 $ (USA Dollar).

 

Chemical composition of  cheese samples

 

The chemical composition of cheese samples is shown in Table 2.

 


Table 2: Chemical composition of the cheese samples from South and West Darfur states

Area

Producer No.

TS    (%)

Fat  (%)

CP  (%)

SP (%)

Ash   (%)

TA         (%)

Salt  (%)

Bulbul

1

54.17bc

22.67abc

20.67cdef

0.37bcd

6.57abc

1.31abc

5.37b

Timbisco

2

51.7bcd

25.33ab

17.00f

0.25d

7.87a

0.68cd

8.13a

El Daein)

3

43.13e

19.50c

18.07ef

0.28d

5.37abcd

0.40d

4.30bcd

4

62.40a

26.33a

25.83abc

0.30cd

3.97bcde

0.42d

3.90bcd

Garsilla

5

53.83bc

26.17a

21.13bcdef

0.41bcd

3.87de

1.50ab

5.73b

6

56.00ab

23.67abc

21.03bcdef

0.35bcd

6.73ab

1.47ab

7.67a

7

48.67cde

22.83abc

19.17def

0.55bcd

3.03de

1.42ab

5.70b

Average

52.8

2379

20.4

0.36

5.34

1.03

5.83

Level of significance

***

**

***

***

***

***

***

Means within the column bearing different superscripts are significantly different  (P< 0.01).

 ***  Means highly significant at P< 0.001

TS = Total solids

CP = Crude protein

SP = Soluble protein


The highest total solids content was for cheese samples from El Daein (South Darfur)  which was significantly higher (P< 0.001), compared to other cheese samples in the two areas. The total solids contents of most cheese samples in Bulbul Timbisco (South Darfur) and Garsilla (West Darfur) showed insignificant variations (p>0.05).  The highest and lowest fat contents were found in samples from El Daein factories.

 

The highest protein content, recorded for the cheese sample from El Daein, while the lowest was obtained in cheese sample from Bulbul Timbisco. However, no significant variations were found in protein contents of the cheese samples between producers in Bulbul Timbisco, Garsilla and El Daein.

  

The cheese sample that had the highest water-soluble protein content was from Garsilla, while the lowest was recorded for a cheese sample from Bulbul Timbisco. Significant (p<0.001) differences were found in soluble protein contents of the cheese in different areas.

 

The  ash content for the cheese sample  from Bulbul Timbisco (South Darfur) was the highest, while the lowest was for a cheese  sample from Garsilla (West Darfur).

 

The acidity of cheese samples from Garsilla (West Darfur) was significantly higher (p<0.001) than the values of the other cheese samples. The lowest acidity value was recorded for the cheese sample from El Daein (South Darfur), while cheese sample from Bulbul Timbisco had higher salt contents while, the lowest salt contents was for a cheese sample from El Daein, South Darfur (Table 2).

 

The cheese proteolysis results are shown in Table 3.


Table 3.  Ripening indices, VFA, tyrosine and tryptophane contents of the cheese samples in South and West Darfur States

Area

Producer No

FRI

SRI

VFA1

Tryptophane2

Tyrosine3

Bulbul Timbisco (South Darfur)

1

19.00abc

33.33bc

5.13b

126.1c

246.17bc

2

19.00abc

111.67abc

3.73b

47.57g

138.60g

3

13.00bc

66.00c

5.33b

33.58h

141.37fg

El Daein (South Darfur)

4

11.33c

76.00bc

3.53b

80.77i

77.57h

Garsilla (West Darfur)

5

25.67a

166.67a

15.03a

120.90d

229.67cd

6

20.67ab

171.60a

14.40a

117.93d

229.33cd

7

20.67ab

145.33ab

15.33a

38.50h

122.93g

Average

18.48

110.09

8.93

8076

169.38

Mean values bearing different superscripts different superscripts within the columns are significantly different (P< 0.05)

1. 0.1/VaOHml/100 1gm cheese

2. mg/100 gm cheese.

3. mg/100 gm cheese


The average Formol and Schilovish ripening indices of the cheese samples were 18.48 and 110.09; 0.1 N ml  NaOH/100 gm cheese, respectively. The values of FRI and SRI ranged from 11.33 to  25.67; 0.1 N NaOH/5 gm  and from 33.33 to 171.60; 0.1 N NaOH/5 gm of cheese, respectively.

 

The average volatile fatty acids content of the cheese samples collected in West and South Darfur was 8.93, 0.1 N ml NaOH/100 gm cheese. The result indicated that significant variations were observed in the VFA content between the cheese samples from Garsilla (West Darfur) and those from other localities. Non significant differences were found in VFA of the cheese samples from Bulbul Timbisco, El Daein and Garsilla.

 

Table 3 shows the average tryptophane and tyrosine contents of the cheese samples. Tryptophane contents of the cheese samples from the three areas were significantly different (Table 3). The highest tryptophane content was for the cheese sample from Bulbul Timbisco, South Darfur, while the lowest tryptophane content was for the sample from El Daein, South Darfur.

 

The highest tyrosine content was found in a cheese sample from Bulbul Timbisco, whereas the lowest tyrosine value  was for the cheese sample from El Daein. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found between the tyrosine contents of the different cheese samples.

 

Discussion 

The main source of milk for cheese is the fresh cow’s milk due to large numbers of cattle (Baggara type) in the area. The manufacturing procedures in this study  were similar to those reported by Ali (1984). The amount of salt used by the producers in these areas varied from 6 – 15% which is different from those reported by Aly and Galal (2002) and Ceylan et al (2003). Cheese yield was higher in Bulbul Timbisco where producers were educated and the milk producers were situated near the processing plants and was immediately transported to the  cheese producers, while in other areas milk is transported uncooled and that could result in loss of its constituents in the whey and hence the lowered yield of  cheese. The results indicated that the cost of production was high in Bulbul Timisco due to the high prices of milk in addition to the transportation cost.

 

Average total solids content of cheese samples was 52.84%. Similar findings were reported by Babiker (1987) and Ibrahim (1971). However, lower total solids contents were reported by Tarakci and Kucukoner (2006), Alalade and Adeneye (2007) and El Owni and Hamid (2008). The variation in total solids content of the cheese samples between different producers could be due to the lack of standards of production. However, producers in  El Daein area heated the milk, a process which results in increase of total solids of the cheese (Patel et al 1986).

 

Variations were observed in fat contents of the cheese in different areas. The results were not in accordance with those reported by Khalid and El Owni (1991) and Topcu and Saldamli (2006) who found 12.8 and 11.79% fat (35.45% of dry matter), respectively. The high average fat contents in this study could be due to high fat contents of the milk used for cheese making.

 

Average protein contents of the collected cheese samples was 20.41%. The findings in this study agreed with the results of Nuser (2001). However, it disagreed with those of Ceylan et al (2003); Warsama et al (2006) and El Owni and Hamid (2008). Average water soluble protein contents of collected cheese sample was 0.36%.  This result is lower than that of Tarakci and Kucukoner (2006).

 

The variation in ash contents between different producers probably arose from different salt levels used, which supported Zaki et al (1974). The results in this study were in  line with those reported by Hamid (1998). Significant variations were observed in titratable acidity of collected cheese samples from the three areas. Similar results were recorded by Ali (1987). The high acidity of the cheese samples, could be due to high lactic acid bacterial counts in raw  milk used for cheese making, or might be due to a long period of  storage of cheese.

 

The average salt contents of cheese samples was 5.83%. The results in this study were higher than those reported by Ibrahim (1971) and Tarakci and Kucukoner (2006). However, this result disagreed with Ahmed and Khalifa (1989), who reported salt values of 10% in Sudanese white soft cheese.

 

The average Formol and Schilovish ripening indices of the cheese samples were 18.48 and 238.66 0.1 N ml  NaOH/100 gm cheese, respectively (Table 5). The variation in ripening indices of the samples between different areas was possibly due to variation in manufacturing conditions. The average VFA contents of the cheese was 8.93 mg/100gm cheese. Similar results were reported by Abdel Razig (1996). The high VFA of the cheese samples in Garsilla  might be explained by long storage period of the cheese.

 

The average  tryptophane and tyrosine contents of the samples were 80.76 and 169.38 mg/100gm cheese, respectively. The results did not agreed with those reported by Guler (2000) who found that the average tyrosine contents of Turkish white cheese sold in Ankra market was 65 mg/100gm cheese. The higher tyrosine and tryptophane contents of the cheese samples in Garsilla might be due to high proteolytic activities occurred in the cheese which resulted in an increase in tyrosine and tryptophane contents (Saleem et al (1978).

 

Conclusion           

 

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Received 14 April 2008; Accepted 30 April 2008; Published 5 August 2008

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