Livestock Research for Rural Development 20 (12) 2008 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD News

Citation of this paper

Effect of  some trace elements supplementation on  the  activities of the hormones secreted by hypophysis, thyroid and parathyroid glands  in dairy heifers post calving

I E Yahia, G M Tickashinka* and M A A Babiker 

Department of Internal Medicine-College of Veterinary Science-University of Bahr El Ghazal.  Khartoum Sudan

*College of Veterinary Medicine- Ukraine Agricultural Academy

aminbabiker@hotmail.com

Abstract    

The aim of the present work was to study the role of iodine, zinc and cobalt supplements on the blood  level of T4, T3, PTH, TSH and calcitonin in heifers post calving. In addition to its effect on reduction of osteomalacia clinical signs.For this purpose 100 diary heifers were allocated to two treatments. Cows given basic ration with daily  supplementation of 6 mg potassium iodide, 30 mg cobalt chloride and 1200 mg zinc sulphate per head. from January to October in Kiev district- Ukraine. And cows  given only the basic ration and acted as a negative control.  Cows were observed and the level of these hormones were measured in January,  May and October .                

 

Supplementation of these trace elements reduced the clinical signs of ruffed hair, dry skin, pale mucous membranes, changes in heart tones, osteolysis of the last coccygeal vertebra, abnormality of the teeth, osteolysis of the last rib, deformity of the horn and effects on the limbs. As well as it elevated the blood levels of T4, T3, TSH, and calcitonin and reduced the blood level of PTH.

Keywords: calcitonin, cobalt, deficiency, iodine, osteomalacia, parathyroid hormone, pathogenicity, zinc


Introduction

Osteomalacia is a chronic disease of animals accompanied with dystrophic changes in the bone tissues, mainly as a consequence of disorder of phosphorous, calcium, magnesium and vitamin D metabolism. Bandzaite et al 2005 reported lowest calcium and phosphorous blood levels in cows with parturient paresis and decreased phosphorous and magnesium in cows with osteomalacia.   Osteomalacia is frequently reported in diary cows in highly specialized farms in Kiev district - Ukraine  (Cудаков и онИпенко 1977). According to the finding of ШapaδpưH et al (1983) osteomalacia in adult cows and rickets in calves developed not only due to insufficient phosphorous and calcium in the ration but also due to insufficient assimilation of these elements in the body. This reflect the activities of parathyroid hormone,  calcitonin and vitamin D.

    

Decrease capacity of bone mobilization is the major factor in susceptibility of some cows to parturient paresis. Hypocalcaemia is also associated with high estrogen plasma level (Hollis et al 1981).  

                                                                                   .

Vital trace elements like iodine, zinc and manganese play an important role in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorous hence these elements constitute part of the hormones and vitamins involved in calcium and phosphorous metabolism. (ТарапОВ et al 1973).                                            

 

The present study was conducted to investigate the role of iodine, cobalt and zinc supplements on the activity of the hormones regulating calcium and phosphorous blood levels in addition of the role of these hormones on causing osteomalacia in heifers post calving in Kiev area – Ukraine in which the biochemical composition of soil and  plants known to be  deficient in some microelements.                                     

 

Materials and methods 

Experimental animals                                                                            

 

A hundred black dotted dairy heifers post calving were allocated to two treatments in Sofki diary farm in Kiev district – Ukraine. Cows received the basic ration plus daily supplementation of  6 mg potassium iodide, 30 mg cobalt chloride and 1200 mg zinc sulfate  per head. during the period of January to October. The other treatment were given only the basic ration and acted as a negative control.                                                                                                              

 

Clinical examination

 

Observations on the clinical signs were carried out as described by Cудаков и онИпенко (1977) including mucous membranes, heart beats, osteolysis of the last coccygeal vertebra, effects on the teeth, osteolysis of the last rib, deformation of the horn, abnormalities of the limbs and the abnormalities on the skin. These examinations were performed three times, at the beginning of the experiment in January, at  May and at the end of the experiment in October.

 

Level of blood hormones

 

Hormones levels were measured by radio-immunassy using  commercial kits. For  parathyroid hormone  Ria-MAT- PTH was used. For calcitonin Ria-MAT calcitonin was used. For Thyrotropic (thyroxin stimulating) hormone  Ria-MAT TSH  was used. These reagents were obtained from Mallinckrodt Diagnostic company (Germany) .For Thyroxin (T4) and Tri-iod-thyronin (T3) Ru T4-PG reagent and Ru-Tri-iod-thyronin PG reagent abtained from Biochemical institute-Byelorussia were used respectively.                                                                                                             

 

Results and discussion 

Clinical examination the control at the end of the experiment   showed signs of cobalt, zinc and iodine deficiency as appeared in Table (1)                  . 


Table 1.  Results of the clinical examinations of dairy  heifers supplemented and non supplemented with some trace elements post calving

Trace

Non-given supplement

Cows elements

Trace

Given supplement

Cows

elements

 

Oct. %

May%

Jan. %

Oct. %

May%

Jan.%

Clinical Examination.

10

43

66

00

6

50

Ruffed  hair

12

16

16

6

8

14

Dry skin

24

42

40

6

12

44

Pale mucous membrane

38

28

20

16

18

20

Changes in the heart tone

48

30

30

18

26

40

Osteolysis of coccicial vertebra

16

24

20

6

14

22

Abnormality of the teeth

20

10

00

10

00

00

Osteolysis of the last rib

28

20

00

12

4

00

Deformity of the horn

28

4

00

4

00

00

Effects on the limbs


In May (after four month of trace elements supplementation) the level of blood calcitonin hormone in cows received trace elements supplements reached 1480.64 ng/ml which is significantly (P<0.05) higher than 1032.38 ng/ml reported in the control . The level of calcitonin was sharply increased in both treatments due to green fodder given to the animals  in stead of dry stored hay and  roughage in addition to that animals were released to the direct sun light exposure after they had been indoors. In the same month the level of the blood parathyroid hormone(PTH) was decreased from 1.480.13 ng/ml recorded in January to 0.390.01 ng/ml in cows given trace elements supplements and significantly(P<0.05) lower than 0.630.02 ng/ml reported in the control This result matched the clinical signs observed in the control.

 

The role of trace elements supplementation  on elevation of calcitonin blood level and/or reducing parathyroid hormone level reported in the cows non supplemented with trace  in this study agreed with the findings of Blum et al (1974), and Garet and Barlet (1975) whom reported decrease of calcitonin level during hyper parathyroidism indicating suppression of osteoplast process activity and osteolysis augmentation. These authors also reported that increase of parathyroid hormone activity over long period can cause fibrous  osteodystrophy which lead to decalcification of bones making them soft and fragile.

T4 and T3 hormones were significantly (P<0.05)  higher in cows given trace elements supplements. TSH showed only slight change.(Table 2).


Table 2.   Plasma levels of T4, T3, TSH, PTH and  calcitonin in dairy heifers post calving during the Experiment period

Elements

Given trace supplement

Cows non
given

Elements

Trace supplement

Cows given

Unit

Hormone

Oct..

May

January

October..

May

January

 

Month

41.61.74

51.03.92

37.70.80

62.86.81

82.23.32

40.23.32

nmol/L

T4

3.400.09

1.970.09

1.140.06

3.560.04

2.050.08

0.980.05

nmol/L

T3

2.150.03

2.290.12

2.310.02

1.7 00.02

1.450.32

1.500.08

Me/ml

TSH

2.180.06

0.630.02

1.540.31

1.080.09

0.390.01

1.480.13

ng/ml

PTH

13.692.00

.1032.38

17.40.76

16.30.64

1480.64

18.62.30

ng/ml

Cal

T4= Thyroxin, T3=Tri-iod-thyronin,  TSH=Thyroid stimulating hormone, PTH= parathyroid hormone, Cal=calcitoni


In October The parathyroid hormone (PTH) was reduced to 1.080.09 compared to its initial level in January. In contrast its level in the control was increased from 1.560.031 in January to 2.180.06. Calcitonin  was reduced in the both treatments but the rate of reduction was lower in cows given trace elements supplements. This explain demineralization of bones in control cows .  T4 level in the cows supplemented with trace elements  in October was increased compared to its level in January  and it was higher than its level in the control..                                                                                               

 

Conclusions      

 

References 

Bandzaite V, Klimiene I. Spakauskas V and Matusevicins A 2005  Interaction between the levels of hormones and minerals in sera of healthy and sick cows. Poland Journal of Veterinary  Science 8(4)269-274

 

Blum J W, Mayer G P and Potls J T 1974. Parathyroid hormone response during hypo and hyper calciumia  in cows. Endocrinology 3(2):84-92

 

Garet J M and Barlet J  P 1975  plasma immuno-active calcitonin and parathyroid hormone level in newly calved cows. Journal of Endocrinology 4 (3):299-300

 

Hollis B W, Draper H H. Burton J H and Etchis R K 1981  Hormonal assessment of bovine parturient paresis; evidence of the role of estrogens. Journal of Endocrinology 88(2): 161-171

 

ШapaδpưH И Г  данИлевсқий, в М БеЉЯКОВ и М замаРин  љ Г 1983 патОљОгияОбмена  веществ и ее профиљактика  у җивотных  спеџиализированных хозЯйств  прмышлеңңого тИПа. М:Қолос 144 c.

 

Cудаков н A  и  онИпенко н. И 1977  профиљактика  мИкроәљементоЙ НедостаточностИ үҝрүПНОгО РОгаТОго сқоТа  всовҲозаХ қиевсқой области. Диагностиқа, терапиЯ и профиљактика болезней селсқоҲозяйственныҲ җиВОТныҲ: сбОр. Науч.Тр/ҮсҲа-Вып. 19-c 4-6

 

ТарапОВ M Т саMОҲUH В Т  и силаеВа с В 1973  DейсТВИе мИкроәљементоВ на аҝТИвносТь щИтоВиDной җелезы Ү ВысоқопрDҮқтиВныҲ  қороВ. Вестниқ  сҲ наҮқи No 12:54- 57



Received 12 April 2008; Accepted 15 October 2008; Published 5 December 2008

Go to top