Livestock Research for Rural Development 19 (2) 2007 Guidelines to authors LRRD News

Citation of this paper

Effect of mating system, parity and breed on the reproductive performances of broiler rabbits under the agro - climatic condition of Meghalaya

S K Das and B P S Yadav

Livestock and Fishery Improvement and Management Programme,
ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, WALMI Complex, Patna - 801505, Bihar, India
skdas65@sifymail.com

Abstract

800 data from 30 does mated with 9 bucks on different reproductive parameters recorded during last two years (2003-2004 and 2004 -2005) in divisional farm of the institute were analyzed. 30 does divided randomly in two groups so that each group consisted of 5 New Zealand White, 5 Soviet Chinchilla and 5 Meghalaya Local does. In Group 1 does were mated once in the morning, whereas in Group 2, does were bred twice on the same day i e in the morning and in the afternoon.

Analysis of data revealed that mating system had significant (P< 0.05) effect on individual litter weight at birth and non - significant (P> 0.05) effect on litter size at birth, litter weight at birth, litter size at weaning, litter weight at weaning, individual litter weight at weaning, service per conception and inter-kindling period. Parity had significant (P< 0.05) effect on litter size at birth and service per conception. Breed had significant (P< 0.05) effect on individual litter weight at weaning. But individual litter weight at birth in single mating (58.31 g) was significantly (P< 0.05) higher than that in double mating group (50.56 g). Litter size at birth was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in 3rd parity (6.80) than that in 1st and 2nd parity with an overall mean of 6.08. Service per conception was significantly (P< 0.05) lower in 2nd and 3rd parity than that in 1st parity with non - significant (P> 0.05) differences between 2nd and 3rd parity. However, individual litter weight at weaning was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in Soviet Chinchilla and New Zealand White rabbit than that in indigenous breed of Meghalaya.

If double mating is practiced in rabbit breeding, farmers will be more benefited in terms of litter size at birth, litter size at weaning, litter weight at birth, lesser services per conception and number of live born kits / doe / year.

Key words: mating system, rabbit, reproductive performance


Introduction

Rabbit breeding is new introduction as an alternative meat producing livestock in NEH Region of India. Rabbit farming is becoming more and more attractive in the NE region of India due to high reproductive potentiality, high mothering ability ( Lukefahr and Cheeke 1990), adaptability in wide range of climatic condition, high genetic variability, high roughage utilization potentiality and low cost of production. Moreover, information about effect of mating system, effect of different breeds and effect of parity on the reproductive performance of broiler rabbit under this agro climatic condition is not available for commercial rabbit farming by the different State Animal Husbandry departments of this N E Region. So, an effort was made to conduct elaborate studies on the effect of mating system, parity and breed on litter size at birth, litter weight at birth, individual litter weight at birth, litter size at weaning, litter weight at weaning, individual litter weight at weaning, service per conception and interkindling period of broiler rabbits under the sub temperate agro climatic condition of Eastern Himalayas, with the following objectives:


Materials and methods

Around 800 data on different reproductive parameters recorded during last two years (2003 - 2004 and 2004 -2005) in the rabbit research farm of from 30 does mated with 9 bucks were analyzed. 10 does each of New Zealand White, Soviet Chinchilla and Meghalaya Local breed, in total 30 rabbit does of 7-8 months age and 3 bucks each of New Zealand White, Soviet Chinchilla and Meghalaya Local breed, in total 9 bucks of 8-9 months age were selected randomly from the divisional farm of ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Meghalaya for this study. 30 does divided randomly in two groups so that each group consisted of 5 New Zealand White, 5 Soviet Chinchilla and 5 Meghalaya Local does. Experiment was done in CRD Design. In Group 1 does were mated once in the morning, whereas in Group 2, does were bred twice on the same day i e in the morning and in the afternoon. Rabbits were reared individually in outdoor hutch system. Concentrate mash feed was given at 100 g  in the morning and green roughage was supplied ad libitum in the afternoon. Composition of feed was maize crust - 40 %, wheat bran - 22 %, groundnut cake - 25 %, fish meal - 5 %, molasses - 5 %, vitamin and mineral mixture - 2.5 %, common salt - 0.5 %. The proximate composition of feed was DM - 93.04, CP - 14.08, Ash - 7.12, EE - 10.33, CF - 10.64, NFE - 57.83 and OM - 92.88 % respectively. Other managemental conditions were remaining same. Different reproductive parameters were recorded as per standard method. Daily meteorological parameters were recorded as per standard method (IMD 1991). Feed was analyzed regularly once a month as per standard method described in AOAC (1980). Selective breeding was done on the basis of selection of males and females. Vigor, physical conformation, growth and feed conversion ratio were the main criteria for selecting buck and doe. Data were analyzed statistically as per methods described in Snedecor and Cochran (1967) .SPSS programme of computer was used for computing ANOVA. Means were compared for significant difference after critical difference test.


Results and discussion

Average air temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature and relative humidity were 26.60 ± 0.43 C, 28.83 ± 0.44 C, 20.38 ± 0.98 C and 76.60 ± 1.13 % respectively.

Effect of mating system

It was found that litter size at birth was non - significantly (P> 0.05) higher in rabbits of Group 2 (6.31) where double mating was practiced than that in Group 1 (5.84) while doe was mated once. The overall mean litter size at birth was recorded to be 6.08. Lukefahr and Cheeke (1990) reported live born litter size at birth in developing countries as 5.96. Individual litter weight at birth in Group 1 was significantly higher than that in Group 2  (Table 1).

Table 1.  Effect of mating system on the reproductive performances of rabbit

Sl No

Traits

Mating System

Overall

Single

Double

1

Litter size at birth

5.84   0.19

6.31   0.17

6.08   0.13

2

Litter weight at birth, g

305   5.50

320   5.40

312   3.94

3

Individual litter weight at birth, g

58.3a   1.35

50.6b   0.93

54.4   0.91

4

Litter size at weaning

4.49   0.17

4.71 0.17

4.60   0.12

5

Litter weight at weaning, kg

2.10   0.07

1.98   0.07

2.04   0.05

6

Individual litter weight at weaning, g

444   7.96

449   8.09

446   7.99

7

Service per conception

1.76   0.14

1.67 0.16

1.71   0.10

8

Interkindling period, days

102   9.30

103   8.60

102   6.30

Figures having different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P < 0.05)

Effect of parity

Litter size at birth was significantly higher in 3rd parity than that in 1st and 2nd parity with an overall mean of 6.08. The reason might be that in the 3rd parity due to maturity of doe more ova were released from ovary and so there was more chance of increasing litter size at birth in 3rd parity than 1st and 2nd parity.. Services per conception were significantly lower in 2nd and 3rd parity than in 1st parity with non - significant differences between 2nd and 3rd parity (Table 2).

Table 2.  Effect of parity on the reproductive performances of rabbit

SL No

Traits

Parity

1 st

2nd

3rd

1

Litter size at birth

5.77b   0.21

5.67b   0.24

6.80a   0.07

2

Litter weight at birth, g

318 5.80

305 7.08

315 7.49

3

Individual litter weight at birth, g

51.9 1.34

56.0 1.69

55.4 1.63

4

Litter size at weaning

4.47 0.23

4.43 0.20

4.90 0.18

5

Litter weight at weaning, kg

2.03 0.09

2.08   0.08

2.00   0.18

6

Individual litter weight at weaning, g

455 9.47

437 9.02

448 11.5

7

Service per conception

2.20 0.23

1.57 0.15

1.37b 0.25

8

Interkindling period, days

112 11.0

83 10.3

103 10.5

Figures having different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P < 0.05)

In contradiction to present findings, Das and Bujarbarua (2005) reported significant (P < 0.05) effect of parity on litter weight at birth.

Effect of breed

Individual weight at weaning was the only reproductive trait affected by breed, with lower values for the local breed compared with NZW and SC (Table 3).

Table 3.   Effect of breed on the reproductive performances of rabbit

SL No

Traits

Breed

NZW

SC

LC

1

Litter size at birth

6.23 0.20

5.97 0.24

6.03 0.24

2

Litter weight at birth, g

311 6.54

311 5.55

316 7.13

3

Individual litter weight at birth, g

54.3 1.47

52.8 1.64

56.2 1.62

4

Litter size at weaning

4.80 0.22

4.60 0.21

4.40 0.20

5

Litter weight at weaning, kg

2.00 0.08

2.09 0.09

2.03 0.08

6

Individual litter weight at weaning, g

461 a 10.2

464 a 10.7

415 b 4.80

7

Service per conception

1.77 0.16

1.73 0.19

1.63 0.19

8

Interkindling period, days

104 13.6

98 8.80

105 10.2

Figures having different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P < 0.05)

Liang (1996) reported much higher litter size at birth (7.50) and litter weight at weaning (3.32 kg) in New Zealand White rabbit in China than the present findings. But Rastogi (1996) reported lower litter size at birth (5.20) and litter size at weaning (4.30) in New Zealand White breed of rabbit in Trinidad.  Similar to present findings Das et al (2006) reported significantly (P < 0.05) higher litter size at weaning and litter weight at weaning in New Zealand White breed of rabbit than Soviet Chinchilla breed; while Das and Bujarbarua (2005) found no effect of breed on litter weight at birth.  Iraqi et al (2006) corroborated with this finding in respect of litter size at birth (6.60) and litter size at weaning (4.80) but contradicted with this findings in respect of litter weight at birth (429 g) and litter weight at weaning (2.97 kg) in New Zealand White breed of rabbit in Egypt.


Conclusion


Acknowledgement

Authors are thankful to the Director of the Institute for providing necessary facilities. The assistance of H S Nongkynrih is acknowledged for day-to-day help in data recording.


References

AOAC 1980 Official Methods of Analysis, 13 th edition. Association of Analytical Chemists Washington DC, USA.

Das S K and Bujarbarua, K M 2005 Effect of breed, generation, parity, season of mating, age of dam at matingand kindling interval on litter weight at birth of Rabbit. Pan American Rabbit Science 9 (2): 35-37.

Das S K, Das A and Bujarbarua K M 2006 Productive performances, reproductive performances, and carcass traits of broiler rabbit in different generation under agroclimatic condition of Meghalaya. Indian Journal of Animal Research 40 (1): 38 - 41.

IMD 1991 Introduction Bulletin of Indian Meteorological Department, Pune, Maharastra

Iraqi M M, Ibrahim M K, Hassan N S H and Deghadi A S E 2006 Evaluation of litter traits in purebred and crossbred rabbits raised under Egyptian conditions. Livestock Research for Rural Development 18 (6): 83. http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd18/6/iraq18083.htm

Liang Q 1996 In Proceeding of 6 th World Rabbit Congress, Toulouse, France, July 9 - 12, Volume 2, P.315 - 318.

Lukefahr S D and Cheeke P R 1990 Rabbit Project Planning Strategies for developing countries (1) Practical considerations. Livestock Research for Rural Development 2 (3): 2 http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd2/3/cheeke1.htm

Rastogi R K 1996 In Proceeding of 6 th World Rabbit Congress, Toulouse, France, July 9-12, Volume 2, P. 415 - 418.

Snedecor G W and Cochran W G 1967 Statistical Methods. 6 th edition. Oxford and IBH Pub. Co.



Received 27 October 2006; Accepted 6 December 2006; Published 8 February 2007

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