Livestock Research for Rural Development

Volume 19, Number 12, 2007

LRRD Newsletter

Welcome to Volume 19, Number 12 of Livestock Research
for Rural Development


Papers received and published
New developments
  • Indexing LRRD
  • Search engine for LRRD
  • Associate-editors
Editorial Procedures
Proof reading of papers
References to LRRD on the Web
On Line Formats for LRRD
  • The HTML Format
E-mail addresses of the Publishers and Editors of LRRD
The University of Tropical Agriculture Foundation
The MEKONG Basin Animal Research Network (MEKARN)
Recycling livestock and human excreta
Recent FAO Publications
  • Tropical Feeds
  • Recent relevant books from FAO Animal Production and Health Series
  • Better Farming Series

Papers received and published in 2006

The numbers of papers submitted to LRRD continues to increase  reaching 406 in 2006.(Figure 1).

Figure 1: Papers submitted to LRRD in the period 2000-2006

There are some changes in the origins of the papers in 2006 compared with 2005 (Figures 2 and 3). Nigeria is still at the head of the list with 105 papers but India moves up to second place followed by Colombia and then Ethiopia. Papers were submitted from 45 countries in 2006, compared with 39 in 2005.

Figure 2: Papers submitted to LRRD during 2005 (n=293)

Figure 3: Papers submitted to LRRD during 2006 (n=406)

The number of papers published since the launch of LRRD in 1989 up to the end of 2006 is now 1,016. During the last 4 years the annual increase in numbers of papers published has averaged close to 30% (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Papers published  in LRRD since it was launched in 1989

The average time to process the papers published in 2006 was 140 days, divided between the time taken in the review process (89 days) and in final editing and formatting in HTML (51days). Reviewing took longer in 2006 while the time for final editing and formatting was less.  The rate of rejection has been 26%, similar to that recorded in 2005. Numbers rejected and published do not add up to the number received as some papers published in 2006 were received in 2005 and many papers received in 2006 are still in the review and editing process.

Table 1: Papers received, rejected and published during 2005 and 2006




Papers received



Papers rejected

75 (25%)

93 (26%)

Papers published



Reception to acceptance, days



Acceptance to publication, days



Reception to publication, days




Figure 5: Papers accepted and rejected during 2006

The data in Figure 5 should be cause for concern for many researchers.  In most cases the causes of rejection were the "lack of relevance" to the vision of LRRD, which is to promote "sustainable" development. In those cases where the aims were relevant it was usually the inadequacy of the data and methods of analysis that led to rejection.  We present this information not as a criticism but in the hope that it will serve to remind authors that their research should address issues of importance for the sustainable development of their country;  as well as a reminder that their papers should be prepared carefully, and according to the norms for submission of papers to LRRD (see guides to authors).

The rapid growth in papers received and published during the last 4 years has put considerable pressure on the editorial team which, as we have often pointed out, is composed of professional scientists (most of them self-employed), who give their time freely to promote the mission of LRRD.  The journal does not receive financial support from any quarter and does not employ secretaries or technical assistants. All activities are done online by electronic mail or through the Web pages of LRRD ( and utafoundation ( In this medium, constantly under pressure from Spam and viruses, papers and communications to and from authors may be mislaid or lost permanently. The editorial team take all possible precautions to avoid disruption of the editorial process, but mistakes are inevitable.

Authors are therefore requested to:

New developments:

The journal has instituted the numbering system required for indexing in ISI and other International Databases. In the table of contents and in the "citations",  articles in a given volume are numbered consecutively. The issue is no longer quoted in the citations.

A search engine has been developed by the LRRD "IT" consultant (Mr Nicholas Waltham) which facilitates "on-line" searching of all the LRRD issues available on the web site. 

We have introduced a system of having associate-editors to take care of papers in certain areas, in order to reduce the work load of the editors and to ensure more efficient communication between editors and authors. The procedure is working well, according to the guidelines set out in "Norms for preparation of papers for LRRD".  We are also taking advantage of the skills being demonstrated by young researchers in Vietnam  by involving them in the task of "editing" tables and references in the correct format for later transposing the files to html. Ms Vo Thi Kim Thanh, from Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, has demonstrated her interest and capacity to do this work, and we are privileged to invite her to join the LRRD editorial team.

The list of Editors and Associate-editors is as follows:

The Scientific Committee, which acts in an advisory capacity, is:

Editorial procedures

Receipt of papers is usually confirmed the day they arrive and almost always they are sent to the associate-editors (or in some case direct to reviewers) the same day. We expect reviewers to send recommendations to the associate-editors (or Chief Editor), as to acceptance of papers for publication in LRRD, and comments, within two weeks of receiving the paper. 

If authors do not receive confirmation of receipt of their papers within two weeks of submitting them, they should remind the chief editor on:

It will also decrease our work load and speed up publication, if authors follow carefully the style and format of LRRD by consulting published papers in earlier issues. Attention is drawn to the style of references and tables which is where most mistakes are made.

Please read the section on "Norms for preparation of papers for LRRD" for details. Failure to observe the LRRD norms for editing papers will inevitably lead to delays in publication, because of the additional work load this causes for the Editors.

Proof reading of papers:

A paper written for LRRD in "html" has a number of supporting files including the "style" of headings and the images of graphs and photos. This creates some difficulties for editors and authors for the final "proof-reading" of the papers when these are sent by E-mail,  as the editors have to ensure that the supporting files are attached along with the paper; and the author, when she / he receives the paper,  has to put all the files in the same folder to be sure that when the paper is opened it will appear complete on the screen.  To avoid these inconveniences, each paper as it is edited is being made available as a provisional "url" which is communicated to authors when the final version of their paper is ready in html format. Authors can then check the paper for possible errors or last minute corrections and inform the editors accordingly.

References to LRRD on the Web

It appears that at present there are no defined standards for citing papers published electronically.  Obviously it is an advantage for such citations to include the "URL" which will take the reader direct to the paper in question. The correct citation for LRRD is now shown in the link "Citation of this paper" at the top of the first page of each article. 

On Line Formats for Livestock Research for Rural Development

HTML ('HyperText Markup Language')

HTML is the native language for publishing documents on the World Wide Web and is understood by all Web browsing software. The journal, as the principal means of publication of developing world sustainable agriculture, needs to be easily available to the widest possible audience of interested people. Using HTML as the on online publishing format has three principal advantages. The first is that everybody who finds the journal can read it with their Internet browser (Microsoft Internet Explorer, and Firefox, are amongst the most common). Secondly, the Internet search engines such as Google, Yahoo, Infoseek and others will index the pages. Thirdly, articles can be posted on the Web  as soon as they are formatted in HTML, thus increasing tremendously the speed of communication of information.

All previous issues of the journal have now been converted to HTML format (thanks to CIPAV staff in Colombia), thus there is available on the Internet through the CIPAV web pages a library of over 17 years of research in the field of developing world sustainable agriculture.

The HTML version of LRRD is available on the Web at:


E-mail addresses of the Publishers and Editors of LRRD

The publisher (CIPAV) in Colombia

The Editors  in Colombia in France


A CD-ROM with all issues of the journal up to the most recent issue can be obtained on request from the Editor  in Colombia.  The price is USD 10.00 per copy, excluding air-mail postage.

The University of Tropical Agriculture Foundation (UTA)

UTA has moved it's international base of activities from Cambodia to Colombia, to a recently purchased farm in the Department of Santander, which is being developed as an "ecofarm" for research, demonstration and learning. The UTA Home page is being updated to reflect these changes.

The MEKONG Basin Animal Research Network (MEKARN)

Details of this network, financed by SidaSAREC,  and involving research and training institutions in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, can be found on the Web site:

Recycling livestock and human excreta

Much interest has been generated in the low-cost plastic biodigesters and the duckweed ponds which are an integral feature of ecological farming.  A manual giving practical details of these technologies has been prepared for FAO and is available at:

In addition to this manual which uses "still" pictures, more detailed guides on the Biodigesters and the Duckweed ponds are available on CD-ROMs in combined Video and Text format:

1. Productive use of livestock wastes: a manual for installation of low-cost plastic biodigesters

2. Productive use of livestock wastes: a manual for the use of  biodigester effluent and ponds for duckweed production

Prices are USD10.00 for each CD-ROM disk plus freight. Details can be had from Lylian Rodriguez at:

FAO Publications

This is an electronic edition of the book `Tropical Feeds', originally written by Dr Bo Göhl, and published by FAO in 1971. The database (program prepared by Dr A W Speedy and Nick Waltham) is available on CD-ROM from: The Senior Officer (Feed Resources), Animal Production and Health Division, FAO, Via della terme di Caracalla, 00100-Rome, Italy.

The most recent version (version 8) is available on:

No 126, Tropical animal feeding: A manual for research workers (T R Preston) 1995, pp 305 (English)

No 132, Feeding pigs in the tropics (Rena Perez) 1997, pp 185 (English):

No 134, Tratamiento y utilización de residuos de origen animal, pesquero y alimenticio en la alimentación animal (Editors: Vilda Figueroa y Manuel Sánchez) 1997, pp 255 (Castellano) [Not yet available on Internet]

No 135, Roughage utilization in warm climates (Michel Chenost and Chedly Kayouli) 1997, pp 226 (English et Français)  
English version:
Version française :

No 139, Tree foliage in ruminant nutrition (Ronald A Leng) 1997, pp 100 (English)

Duckweed; a tiny aquatic plant with enormous potential for agriculture and environment (Ronald A Leng) 1999, pp 108 (English)

No 42, Using fodder from trees and shrubs to feed livestock in the tropics (O B Smith), pp 52 (English, Français, Castellano)

No 43, Feeding animals on straw (F Dolberg), pp30 (English)

No 44, Processing of cassava and sweet potatoes for animal feeding (V Ravindran), pp 49 (English)

No 45, Multinutrient block handbook (L O Garcia and J I Restrepo), pp 28 (English)

No 46, Use of cassava and sweet potatoes in animal feeding (V Ravindran), pp 47(English)

Hard copies can be obtained from: The Senior Officer, Feed Resources Group, AGA, FAO, 00100 Rome Italy

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