Livestock Research for Rural Development 18 (10) 2006 Guidelines to authors LRRD News

Citation of this paper

Effect of feeding differently processed detoxified neem (Azadirachta indica) seed cake based complete diet on growth, nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics in Nellore sheep  

K Madhavi, T J Reddy, Y Ramana Reddy and G V N Reddy*

Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, ANGR Agricultural University, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad 500 030, India
*College of Veterinary Science, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati - 517 502, India
ramanayr19@yahoo.co.in


Abstract

A complete diet was formulated using detoxified neem (Azadirachta indica) seed cake and processed into mash, expander extruded pellets and steam pellets. These three diets were evaluated in comparison to a conventional ration in a 180-day growth and metabolism trial using twenty four Nellore ram lambs (18.81±0.51kg) divided into four groups of six lambs each, in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). At the end of growth trial three ram lambs from each group at random were slaughtered to study the carcass characteristics.

The average daily gain was significantly (P<0.05) higher and cost/kg gain was lower in pelleted diets in comparison to control and mash diets. DMI was significantly (P<0.01) lower in lambs fed complete mash ration compared to those fed control and pelleted rations. Pelleting significantly increased the digestibility of OM, CF (P<0.05) and CP (P<0.01). Positive N, Ca and P balances were recorded on all the diets and N and Ca balances were significantly (P<0.01) higher in pelleted diets in comparison to control and mash diets. The DCP and TDN values of the diet was significantly (P<0.01) increased by processing the NSC based complete diet into pellets. Increased trend in intakes of DM, DCP and TDN were observed in lambs fed pelleted rations than mash and conventional ration. Significant (P>0.05) differences with regard to dressing percentage, primal cuts, proportion of lean, bone, fat and edible and inedible organs was not observed among the lambs fed experimental diets. But increased trend in dressing and lean percentage with concomitant decrease in proportion of bone and fat in lambs fed pelleted diets was observed.

Hence, neem seed cake, an unconventional feedstuff, can be incorporated into complete diets after detoxification without any deleterious on growth and meat quality. Among pelleting methods, expander-extruder processing can be preferred over steam pelleting since the processing cost is less compared to steam pelleting.

Key words: carcass characteristics, Neem seed cake, nutrient utilization, performance, processing, sheep


Introduction

Small ruminants in India are mostly reared by the weaker sections of the society, who find it difficult to feed their sheep and goat on costly conventional oil seed meals. Hence, reduction in investment by incorporating hitherto wasted and unutilized agro-industrial by-products as protein supplements need to be scrutinized. Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed cake, an unconventional feed, is a good source of protein (30-40% CP) for livestock and available to an extant of 0.9 million tons in India (Singh 1993). The protein in cake is relatively balanced in its amino acid content and mineral profile (Gowda and Sastry 2000). Despite high CP content, its incorporation in animal diets was discouraged due to their adverse effect on production traits because of presence of bitter and toxic triterpenoids, mainly nimbin, nimbidin, azadirachtin, and salanin (Paul et al 1996). Further, feeding such ingredients may impart unpleasant taste or smell to meat (Clausen et al 1985). Debitterization through solvent extraction, water washing, alkali soaking and urea-ammoniation has been tried with appreciable success (Gowda and Sastry 2000). In addition, the palatability and utilization of unconventional feedstuffs can be improved by incorporating into complete diets and processing into pellets (Reddy and Reddy 1999). Hence, in the present study an attempt has been made to examine the growth rate, nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics in Nellore sheep in a long term feeding of such unconventional feedstuffs after detoxification and processing into complete diets such as mash, steam pellets and expander-extruded pellets.


Materials and Methods

Site of study

The study was carried out at the College of Veterinary Science, S.V. Veterinary University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India (17o 12′ N, 78o 18′ E, 518 m above mean sea level). The mean rainfall in the region was 750 mm.

Experimental feeds

A complete diet was formulated with water washed (1:15 w/v) and urea -ammoniated (4% urea, 40% moisture with incubation period of 14 d) neem seed cake at 15% level (Table 1) using bajra (Pennisetum americanum) straw (28.5%) and groundnut (Earaches hypogaea) haulms (10%) as roughage source and processed into mash by grinding through 8mm sieve in a hammer mill.


Table 1.  Ingredient composition (g/kg) of NSC based experimental diets 

Ingredient

Concentrate

Complete diet

Mash

Expander-extruded pellets

Steam pellets

Bajra straw

Groundnut haulms

Maize

Groundnut cake

Deoiled rice bran

Neem seed cake

Molasses

Mastimin*

Salt

Cost of processing, Rs./ton

-

-

300

300

270

-

100

20

10

117

285

100

100

100

150

150

100

10

05

255

285

100

100

100

150

150

100

10

05

300

285

100

100

100

150

150

100

10

05

350

*Mineral supplement

Vitamin supplement was added to complete diets @10g/100kg  
 and @ 20g/100kg for concentrate mixture.

1 UK = Rs. 84.60             1 US $ = Rs. 45.67


Then one third of the mash was subjected to steam pelleting and another one third to expander extruder processing. These three processed NSC based complete diets were evaluated through growth (180 d) and metabolism trial using Nellore ram lambs in comparison to a conventional control ration containing concentrate mixture and chopped jowar (Sorghum bicolor) straw.

Experimental animals, housing and feeding management

Twenty four healthy, Nellore ram lambs with an average body weight of 18.81±0.51kg were randomly allotted to 4 groups of six animals each in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). All the lambs were dewormed and vaccinated against enterotoxaemia prior to initiation of the study and maintained in well ventilated individual pens (4mx3m) with facilities for feeding and watering. The processed diets were offered ad lib twice daily at 8.00 and 14.00h during the experiment period. In case of control group quantity of concentrate offered was adjusted fortnightly according to body weight to meet the protein requirements (Ranjhan 1993). Clean drinking water was made available ad libitum through out the study for the experimental animals.

Growth and metabolism trial

Daily feed intake and fortnightly body weights for two consecutive days in the morning before feeding and watering were recorded through out the 180 days of experimentation. In the middle of the experiment the lambs (32.02±0.84 kg) were transferred to individual cages with feeding and watering arrangements and conducted metabolic trial following 7 day adaptation period and 7 day collection period. During the collection period feed intake of each animal was quantified based on feed refusal of each day. Samples of feed offered and residues leftover were collected in separate polythene bags for each animal daily for chemical analysis. Faeces and urine voided during the 24 h were collected and measured at 8.00 h. A 10 per cent (w/w) aliquot of faeces in a polythene bag was frozen at -20oC for each animal. An aliquot of 5 per cent urine was collected daily and preserved at 4oC after the addition of few drops of concentrated HCl. After completion of the collection period, frozen faecal samples were thawed, mixed thoroughly and sub-sampled for N and DM determination. For further chemical analysis, feed and faecal samples were dried and ground through a 1 mm screen in a Wiley mill and processed in air tight bottles.

Analytical procedures

The feed, faeces and urine samples were analyzed for N using Turbotherm and Vapodest (Gerhardt, Germany) analyzer based on the principle of Micro-Kjeldahl method (AOAC 1997; Procedure No. 4.2.02). Dry matter (DM), total ash (TA), ether extract (EE) and crude fibre (CF) were estimated according to according to the procedure No.4.1.03, 4.1.02, 4.5.01 and 4.6.01, respectively as described by AOAC (1997). Calcium was estimated by Systronic flame photometer 128 (FPM compressor 126 1999) and phosphorus was estimated by colorimetric method (AOAC 1997). DE and ME values were calculated using the conversion factors (NRC 1978).

Slaughter studies

After growth trial, three animals from each group were randomly selected to study the carcass characteristics. Animals were slaughtered by "Halal method" after starving overnight. The live weights before slaughter were recorded. The sticking, legging, dressing and evisceration were performed as per the procedures described by Gerrard (1964).Weight of hot carcass, different wholesale cuts, edible (liver, heart, testes, diaphragm, kidney and spleen) and non-edible (blood, lungs, trachea, stomach and intestines) offals were recorded. The weight of fat, muscle and bone of each trimmed cut were recorded separately from left side of the carcass.

Statistical analysis

The experimental data were subjected to least square analysis of variance (Snedecor and Cochran 1968) and the treatment means were tested for significance by Duncan's multiple range test (1955).


Results and Discussion

Chemical composition

Processing did not affect the chemical composition of complete diet (Table 2), corroborating with the findings of Reddy and Reddy (1999) and Reddy et al (2002).


Table 2.   Chemical composition (% DM basis) of NSC based complete diets

Parameter

Conventional  ration

Complete ration

Concentrate

Chopped Sorghum straw

Mash

Expander-extruded pellets

Steam pellets

OM

90.07

88.18

86.60

87.07

86.20

CP

20.02

3.90

12.11

11.97

11.92

CF

10.89

34.82

23.31

23.50

22.80

EE

3.25

1.70

3.82

3.83

3.90

NFE

55.91

47.76

47.36

47.77

47.58

TA

9.93

11.82

13.40

12.93

13.80

Ca

0.78

0.65

0.89

0.88

0.89

P

0.49

0.68

0.36

0.37

0.38


Growth rate and feed efficiency

Lambs fed mash ration recorded significantly (P<0.05) lower final body weight, weight gain and average daily gain (ADG) where as those fed pelleted rations recorded higher (P<0.05) values than the control ration (Table 3).


Table 3.   Performance of lambs fed differently processed NSC based complete diets

Parameter

Conventional Ration

Complete ration

SEM

Mash

Expander extruded pellets

Steam pellets

Initial weight, kg

Final weight, kg

Weight gain, kg

Average daily gain, g/d

Feed intake, g/d

Feed efficiency, kg/kg gain

Cost of feed/kg gain, Rs.

18.681

34.43b

15.75b

87.50b

0.95

12.01

59.99

18.83

32.55a

13.72a

76.20a

0.87

12.60

57.28

18.87

36.15c

17.28c

96.02c

0.98

11.04

50.69

18.87

36.65c

17.78c

98.80c

1.09

10.99

51.02

1.03

0.93

1.77

7.11

SEM.: Standard error of means
a, b, c values bearing different superscripts in a row differ significantly  (P<0.05)
1 UK = Rs. 84.60             1 US $ = Rs. 45.67


There was 8.08 %, 8.49% decrease and 4.91% increase in feed intake per kg gain in lambs fed expender extruded pellets, steam pellets and mash diet, respectively in comparison to those fed control diet. Pelleting of mash ration improved daily weight gain and reduced feed per kg gain in lambs and kids compared to conventional ration (Reddy and Reddy 1991a; Reddy and Linga Reddy 2003). Higher ADG and better feed efficiency were also reported in post weaned calves, steers and sheep (Serrano et al 1998; Reddy and Reddy 1999; Weir et al 1959; Bush et al 1978) fed processed diets. Increased palatability and digestibility of pelleted rations together with efficient utilization of absorbed nitrogen may be responsible for increased ADG and feed efficiency in pellet fed animals (Nicholson et al 1996; Reddy and Reddy 1999; Reddy et al 2002). In addition, Esplin et al (1957) postulated that beneficial results from pelleting were probably due to more exact control of the concentrate to roughage ratio and improved palatability rather than increase in nutritive value. Poor feed conversion efficiency and lower ADG in lambs fed mash diet was attributed to lower DMI, which is due to sorting of fine and bitter particles of NSC in mash diet.

Cost of feeding

The cost of feed/kg was lower for complete diets than conventional ration due to inclusion of low cost unconventional feeds like NSC and bajra straw (Table 3). High cost of pelleted diets compared to mash diet was due to additional cost involved in processing. The cost of feed/kg gain was reduced by 4.52, 15.50 and 14.95 per cent in lambs fed complete mash, expander extruded and steam pelleted diets, respectively compared to conventional ration (Table 3). Cost of feed/kg gain was comparable between pelleted diets but was less on pelleted diets than conventional and mash rations. Similar results of reduced cost per kg gain on processed diets were reported in sheep (Bush et al 1978; Ramu et al 1994) and calves (Reddy and Reddy 1999; Reddy et al 2002). This may be due to high feed efficiency and low cost of processed complete diets due to incorporation of cheaply available unconventional feeds. Though FCR was poor on mash than conventional ration, cost of feed per kg gain was less for mash ration due to low cost of ration/kg.

Dry matter intake

The DMI was significantly (P<0.01) different among the diets and lower on NSC based mash ration compared to other three diets (Table 4).


Table 4.   Dry matter intake, digestibility and nutritive value of differently processed neem seed cake based complete diets in Nellore sheep 

Parameter

Experimental rations

SEM

Conventional

Mash

Expander-extruded

Steam pelleted

Body weight, kg

32.60

29.57

32.53

33.37

0.84

DMI, g/d

1303e

975d

1310e

1328e

84.75

DMI, % B.wt.

4.01e

3.31d

4.09e

3.99e

0.21

Digestibility, %

DM

54.06

56.99

56.28

57.17

1.56

OM

56.62a

58.01a

60.32b

60.72b

1.25

CP

63.79a

65.84b

68.01c

68.06c

1.62

CF

46.09a

46.42a

50.36b

51.05b

2.00

EE

78.61

80.73

81.27

80.33

2.81

NFE

59.20

60.21

63.65

63.17

2.26

Nutritive value of diets

DCP, g/kg DM

68.3d

77.6e

81.4f

81.8f

2.56

DE, MJ/kg DM

9.19d

9.44e

10.3f

10.13f

0.22

ME, MJ/kg DM

7.54d

7.74e

8.45f

8.31f

0.18

SEM: Standard error of means
a,b.c values with different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P<0.05)
d,e,f values with different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P<0.01


Bedi et al (1975) and Ludri and Arora (1977) also reported decreased DMI on NSC based diets. Lower DMI of mash ration may be due to sorting of fine and bitter NSC particles, but this effect was largely overcame by pelleting. Hence, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences in DMI among conventional, expander-extruded and steam pelleted diets. Similar results were recorded by Nicholson et al (1996) when crab meal based diet was pelleted. Increased DMI of pelleted rations may be due to reduced dustiness and increased palatability due to processing (Skoch et al 1983).

Digestibility of nutrients

Digestibility of DM, EE, NFE did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among the diets, but there is increased trend in digestibility towards pelleted rations (Table 4). Digestibility of OM, CP, CF was significantly (P<0.05) higher in pellet fed lambs as compared to control and mash fed lambs. Pelletization of complete feed, improved digestibility of nutrients (Reddy and Reddy 1984, 1994; Reddy et al 2003). Pelleted rations showed higher digestibility due to processing effect, which could alter the cellulose from a crystalline structure to a more digestible amorphous state and also long chain cellulose would be broken down by heat and pressure, leaving segments more vulnerable for bacterial action (Jahn and Kamstra 1960). Pelleting also gelatinizes starch, thus making it more susceptible to enzymatic digestion (Jensen and Becker 1965).

The DCP and TDN contents were significantly (P<0.01) higher in pelleted diets in comparison to mash and control diet (Table 4). In similar studies, pelleting significantly (P<0.01) increased the DCP and TDN content (Ibrahim et al 1998; Reddy et al 2002; Reddy et al 2003). Higher DCP and TDN values recorded on pelleted diet compared to mash and conventional diet was reflection of pelleting effect (Reddy and Reddy 1998) which resulted in higher OM and CP digestibility. However, Lindahl and Davis (1955) reported only small increase, while Weir et al (1959) reported no increase in TDN content due to pelleting.

Balance studies

All the experimental animals were on positive nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) balances (Table 5).


Table 5.   Effect of Feeding differently processed NSC based diets on nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and nutrient intake in Nellore lambs

Parameter

Experimental rations

 

SEM

Conventional

Mash

Expander-extruded

Steam pelleted

N Balance

N intake (g/d)

22.35

18.04

25.44

25.34

0.74

N out go (g/d)

16.18

13.07

17.39

17.87

0.66

N retention (g/d)

6.17a

4.97a

8.05b

7.47b

1.04

Calcium balance

Ca intake (g/d)

9.19

8.68

11.53

11.82

0.32

Ca out go (g/d)

6.68

6.41

8.27

8.71

0.53

Ca retention (g/d)

2.51a

2.27a

3.26b

3.11b

0.37

Phosphorus balance

P  intake (g/d)

3.21

3.52

4.85

5.02

0.10

P out go (g/d)

1.35

1.53

2.67

2.74

0.20

P retention (g/d)

1.86

1.98

2.18

2.28

0.31

Nutrient intake

DCP (g per day)

89.07

75.88

106.72

108.92

7.81

DE (MJ per day)

11.99

9.19

13.57

13.51

1.03

ME (MJ per day)

9.83

7.54

11.13

11.08

0.84

SEM: Standard error of means

a,b values with different superscripts in a row differ significantly (P<0.05)


Significantly higher N retention was observed in lambs fed expander extruded and steam pelleted NSC based diets than those fed mash and conventional diets. Increased N retention due to pelleting was reported (Ibrahim et al 1998; Reddy et al 2002) and this was attributed to processing effect (Reddy and Reddy 1983), and another reason being the availability of matching supply of energy to rumen microbes on these rations (Reddy and Reddy 1991b). Ca retention was significantly (P<0.05) higher in lambs fed complete diets compared to those fed mash and conventional ration. These findings are in agreement with the findings of Ibrahim et al (1998) and Reddy et al (1992). This may be due to processing effect in pelleted diets as compared to mash diet and control ration. Significantly higher calcium retention on pelleted rations was reflection of higher intakes of this mineral (Reddy and Reddy 1991c). In contrast, Ca balance was not influenced by processing of complete diets in calves and sheep (Reddy and Reddy1991a; Reddy and Reddy 1999; Reddy et al 2002). Processing had no significant (P>0.05) effect on P balance and this finding is in accordance with the other studies (Reddy and Reddy 1999; Reddy et al 2002). In contrast Ibrahim et al (1998) Reddy and Reddy (1991a) reported higher P retention due to pelleting of diets.

Nutrient intake

DCP (g) and ME (MJ) intake per kg metabolic body weight were 5.98 to 7.86 and 0.63 to 0.86 in lambs fed experimental diets. The intakes were higher in pellet fed lambs and lower in mash fed lambs than those fed conventional ration (Table 5). Lambs on rations except mash could meet their DCP, TDN requirements according to ICAR (1998) standards. ICAR (1998) has recommended 6.71g DCP and 0.71MJ ME per kg metabolic body weight.

Slaughter studies

Dressing percentage on live weight and empty body weight basis varied from 50.51% to 52.42% and 56.72% to 60.06%, respectively and didn't differ significantly among the groups (Table 6).


Table 6.   Effect of feeding differently processed NSC based diets on carcass characteristics of lambs 

Parameter

Conventional

Complete diet

SEM

Mash

Expander-extruded pellets

Steam pellets

Dressing, %

 

 

 

 

 

     on live weight

50.51

51.15

51.91

52.42

0.84

     on empty Body weight

56.72

56.83

58.29

60.06

0.78

Edible organs, %

 

 

 

 

 

     on live weight.

2.67

2.81

4.06

3.55

0.28

     on empty Body weight

3.57

3.75

4.90

4.58

0.33

Non edible organs, %

 

 

 

 

 

     on live weight

9.17

8.80

8.09

8.18

0.44

     on empty Body weight

10.65

10.76

9.72

10.53

0.59

Edible: Non edible organs

1:2.98

1:2.87

1:1.98

1:2.30

 

Proportion of whole sale cuts, %

Leg

31.91

33.60

32.34

32.14

0.38

Loin

11.93

11.37

11.57

12.65

0.28

Rack

11.81

10.08

11.37

10.33

0.41

Shoulder and neck

25.23

27.62

28.39

28.21

0.73

Fore shank and brisket

19.11

17.32

16.34

16.66

 

SEM.: Standard error of means
P>0.05


There was an increased trend in dressing percentage in pellet-fed lambs. Present results are in agreement with the findings of Utley et al (1973) and Bush et al (1978) who reported no significant (P>0.05) difference in dressing percentage due to processing of diets. In contrast, higher dressing percentage was reported in the lambs and steers fed pelleted feed (Weir et al 1959). Yield of primal cuts didn't differ significantly (P>0.05) among the treatment groups (Table 6) and all the values were with in the normal range indicating that NSC based diets had no adverse effect on dressing percentage. Reddy and Reddy (2001) reported that proportion of different whole sale cuts of Nellore lambs under intensive system were 35.2, 16.6, 12.7, 22.5 and 13.0 per cent for leg, loin, rack, shoulder and neck and fore shank and brisket, respectively. Edible organs as per cent of live weight or empty body weight were higher in steam pelleted and expander-extruder processed diets but not statistically significant (Table 6). The ratio of edible to non edible organs increased gradually from control to mash to pelleted rations.

Percentage of lean and bone was not significantly (P>0.05) different (Table 7) among the diets.


Table 7.   Physical composition (%) in carcasses of lambs fed NSC based complete diets

Parameter

Conventional

Complete diet

SEM

Mash

Expander-extruded pellets

Steam pellets

Lean, %

56.20

58.45

59.07

60.55

0.92

Bone, %

26.44

25.03

24.26

23.79

0.91

Fat, %

17.36

16.53

16.67

15.66

0.37

Meat : Bone

2.13:1

2.34:1

2.44:1

2.55:1

 

SEM.: Standard error of means
P>0.05


Proportion of lean was higher and fat was lower in lambs fed processed diets but were not statistically (P>0.05) different. No significant (P>0.05) differences in marbling score of steers was observed by feeding ground, unground and pelleted peanut hull based diets (Utley et al 1973). Weir et al (1959) reported lower fat percentage in steers fed pelleted diets. The meat bone ratio (Table 7) was increased gradually (P>0.05) from control to pelleted rations, which indicates favorable conditions for good quality meat with processed feeds. Krishna Mohan and Charyulu (1983) reported no significant (P>0.05) difference in proportion of meat and bone among lambs fed complete rations.


Conclusions


References

AOAC 1997 Official Methods of Analysis. 16th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Maryland, USA

Bedi S P S, Vijjan K and Ranjhan, S K 1975 Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed cake on growth and digestibility of nutrients in crossbred calves. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 45: 618-621

Bush R S, Mac Intyre T M and Nicholson J W G 1978 Pelleted complete grower-finisher rations for lambs. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 58: 571-577

Clausen S, Larsen L M, Ploger A and Sorensen H 1985 Advances in the Production and Utilization of Cruciferous Crops. Junk publications, Netherlands

Duncan D B 1955 Multiple range and multiple F-tests. Biometrics 11:1-42

Esplin A L, Garrins U S and Matfield E E 1957 Some effects of pelleting a ground mixed ration on feed utilization by fattening lambs. Journal of Animal Science 16: 863-869

Gerrard F 1964 Meat Technology. 3rd edition. Leonard Hell Ltd., London

Gowda S K and Sastry V R B 2000 Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed cake in Animal Feeding - scope and limitations - Review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 13: 720-728

Ibrahim M D, Reddy D N and Reddy M R 1998 Effect of processing on the utilization of sorghum straw in sheep rations. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 15: 269-271

ICAR 1998 Nutrient requirements of Livestock and poultry. 2nd revised edition. Indian Council of agricultural Research, New Delhi, India

Jahn R and Kamastra L D 1960 Pelleting roughage rations. South Dakota Agricultural Experimental. Farm and Home Research 11:20-25

Jensen A H and Becker D E 1965 Effect of pelleting diets and dietary components on the performance of young pigs. Journal of Animal Science 24:392-399

KrishnaMohan D V G and Charyulu E K 1983 Studies on growth, nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics in lambs fed rations having different proportions of concentrate to roughage. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 53: 1228-1233

Lindahl I L and Davis R E 1955 Effect of pelleting on digestibility of lamb diets. Journal of Animal Science, 14:1215-1221

Ludri R S and Arora S P 1977 Versatile neem (Azadirachta indica) - A review. Agriculture Review 4:1-10

Nicholson J W G, McQueen R E, Allen J G and Bush R S 1996 Effect of mash or pelleted supplements containing crab meal on intake and weight gains of beef cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 76:95-103

NRC 1978 Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 5th revised Edition. National Academy of Science, National Research Council, Washington DC

Paul B N, Haque N and Garg A K 1996 Effect of feeding neem seed kernel cake (Azadirachta indica) on rumen enzyme of buffalo. Indian Veterinary Journal 73: 720-728

Ramu A, Reddy T J and Raghavan G V 1994 Water washed neem seed cake as substitute of deoiled rice bran in sheep and goat rations. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 11:47-51

Ranjhan S K 1993 Animal Nutrition in tropics. 5th revised edition. Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, India. pp. 335-336

Reddy G V N, Dipti Wilhelmina P and Reddy M S 2003 Effect of differently processed complete diet on performance of Murrah buffaloes. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 20:131-135.

Reddy M R, Govindaiah T and Reddy G V N 1992 Effect of physical processing on nutritive value of cotton straw in goats and sheep. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 9:141-145

Reddy G V N and Linga Reddy J 2003 Effect of cotton stalks based complete diet on growth and carcass characteristics in sheep and goat in field condition. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 20:97-100

Reddy G V N and Reddy M R 1983 Complete pelleted rations for sheep utilizing agro-industrial by-products and crop residues. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 53:266-270

Reddy GVN and Reddy M R 1984 Dry fallen tree leaves as roughage source in the complete feeds for sheep. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 54:1046-1050

Reddy G V N and Reddy M R 1991a Utilization of cotton seed hulls as roughage source in complete diets for growing lambs. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 8:39-42

Reddy G V N and Reddy M R 1991b Effect of processing groundnut hulls on nutrient utilization in sheep and goats Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 8: 123-126

Reddy GV N and Reddy M R 1991c Effect of processing of cotton seed hulls on nutrient utilization in sheep and goats. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 61:1122-1125

Reddy G V N and Reddy M R 1994 Effect of processing Heteropogon contortus hay on nutrient utilization in goats and sheep. Small Ruminant Research 13:15-19

Reddy G V N and Reddy M R 1998 Utilization of expander-extruder processed complete diet containing sunflower heads in Ongole bull calves. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 15:272-275

Reddy G V N and Reddy M R 1999 Effect of feeding extruded complete diet containing maize cobs in Ongole bull calves. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 16:210-214

Reddy G V N and Reddy M R 2001 Meat production and carcass characteristics of native goats and sheep under intensive system of feeding utilizing urea treated sorghum straw based diet. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 18:375-377

Reddy G V N, Reddy J K and Nagalakshmi D 2002 Effect of expander extruder processed complete diet containing sugar cane bagasse on growth and nutrient utilization in Ongole bull calves. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 72:406-409

Serrano X, Baucells M D, Barrota A C and Puchal F 1998 Effects of extruded diet on productive performance of weaning and post weaned calves. Animal Feed Science and Technology 70:275-279

Singh K 1993 Livestock production and health. In: Neem research and development, Publication No. 3, Society of Pesticide Science, India. pp. 187-198

Skoch E R. Binder S F, Deyoe C W, Allee G and Land Behnke K C 1983 Effects of pelleting conditions on performance of pigs fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Journal of Animal Science 57:922-927

Snedecor G W and Cochran W G 1968 Statistical methods. 6th edition. Oxford and IBH publishers, New Delhi, India

Utley P R, Helwing R E, Butler J L and Mc Cormic 1973 Comparison of unground, ground and pelleted peanut hulls as roughage source in steer finishing diets. Journal of Animal Science 37: 608-614

Weir W C, Meyer J H, Garret W N, Lofgreen G P and Ittner N R 1959 Pelleted rations compared to similar rations fed chopped or ground for steers and lambs. Journal of Animal Science 18:805-814


Received 21 June 2006; Accepted 18 September 2006; Published 2 October 2006

Go to top